Surface water

  • surface water
  • All waters on the surface of the Earth found in streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, marshes or wetlands, and as ice and snow.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Surface water is water located on top of land forming terrestrial (inland) waterbodies, and may also be referred to as blue water, opposed to the seawater and waterbodies like the ocean. The vast majority of surface water is produced by precipitation. As the climate warms in the spring, snowmelt runs off towards nearby streams and rivers contributing towards a large portion of human drinking water. Levels of surface water lessen as a result of evaporation as well as water moving into the ground becoming ground-water. Alongside being used for drinking water, surface water is also used for irrigation, wastewater treatment, livestock, industrial uses, hydropower, and recreation. For USGS water-use reports, surface water is considered freshwater when it contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids. There are three major types of surface water. Permanent (perennial) surface waters are present year round, and includes lakes, rivers and wetlands (marshes and swamps). Semi-permanent (ephemeral) surface water refers to bodies of water that are only present at certain times of the year including seasonally dry channels such as creeks, lagoons and waterholes. Man-made surface water is water that can be continued by infrastructures that humans have assembled. This would be dammed artificial lakes, canals and artificial ponds (e.g. garden ponds) or swamps. The surface water held by dams can be used for renewable energy in the form of hydropower. Hydropower is the forcing of surface water sourced from rivers and streams to produce energy.

    表流水(ひょうりゅうすい、英語: Surface Water)とは、河川や湖沼の水のように完全に地表面に存在している水のことで、特に停滞していない水(流れを確認することが可能である水)のことをいう。地表水とほぼ同義であるが、地表水が一部の湖沼水や水たまりなどの停滞した水を含むのに対して、表流水には停滞した水は含まない。


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