• biochemistry
  • The study of chemical substances occurring in living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying these substances.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Biochemistry or biological chemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, in turn relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs, as well as organism structure and function. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, bonding, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. They provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. The chemistry of the cell also depends upon the reactions of small molecules and ions. These can be inorganic (for example, water and metal ions) or organic (for example, the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins). The mechanisms used by cells to harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine, nutrition and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases. Nutrition studies how to maintain health and wellness and also the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers. Improving crop cultivation, crop storage, and pest control are also goals. Biochemistry is extremely important since it helps individuals learn about complicated topics such as prions.

    生化学(せいかがく、英語:biochemistry)は、生命現象を化学的に研究する生物学または化学の一分野である。生物化学(せいぶつかがく、biological chemistry)とも言う(若干生化学と生物化学で指す意味や範囲が異なることがある。生物化学は化学の一分野として生体物質を扱う学問を指すことが多い)。生物を成り立たせている物質と、それが合成や分解を起こすしくみ、そしてそれぞれが生体システムの中で持つ役割の究明を目的とする。