Organic chemistry

  • organic chemistry
  • A branch of chemistry dealing with the study of composition, reaction, properties, etc. of organic compounds.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure determines their structural formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior. The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study. The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) as well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus (included in many biochemicals) and the halogens. Organometallic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon–metal bonds. In addition, contemporary research focuses on organic chemistry involving other organometallics including the lanthanides, but especially the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium. Organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute the majority of known chemicals. The bonding patterns of carbon, with its valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, plus structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, and their range of applications enormous. They form the basis of, or are constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals; petrochemicals and agrichemicals, and products made from them including lubricants, solvents; plastics; fuels and explosives. The study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but also with medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science.

    有機化学(ゆうきかがく、英語: organic chemistry)は、有機化合物の製法、構造、用途、性質についての研究をする化学の部門である。 構造有機化学、反応有機化学(有機反応論)、合成有機化学、生物有機化学などの分野がある。 炭素の酸化物を除き、炭素化合物はすべて有機化合物である。また、生体を構成する物質のうち、タンパク質や核酸、糖、脂質といった化合物は炭素化合物である。ケイ素はいくぶん似た性質を持つが、炭素に比べると Si-Si 結合やSi=Si結合等の安定度が低いために炭素ほどの多様性をもたない。