• hydrogeology
  • The science dealing with the occurrence of surface and ground water, its utilization, and its functions in modifying the earth, primarily by erosion and deposition.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers). The terms groundwater hydrology, geohydrology, and hydrogeology are often used interchangeably. Hydrogeology is the study of the laws governing the movement of subterranean water, the mechanical, chemical, and thermal interaction of this water with the porous solid, and the transport of energy, chemical constituents, and particulate matter by flow (Domenico and Schwartz, 1998). Groundwater engineering, another name for hydrogeology, is a branch of engineering which is concerned with groundwater movement and design of wells, pumps, and drains. The main concerns in groundwater engineering include groundwater contamination, conservation of supplies, and water quality. Wells are constructed for use in developing nations, as well as for use in developed nations in places which are not connected to a city water system. Wells must be designed and maintained to uphold the integrity of the aquifer, and to prevent contaminants from reaching the groundwater. Controversy arises in the use of groundwater when its usage impacts surface water systems, or when human activity threatens the integrity of the local aquifer system.

    水文地質学(すいもんちしつがく、英: hydrogeology)は、地球の地殻を構成する土壌や岩石(一般的には帯水層)に含まれる、地下水の振る舞いおよび分布を対象とする地質学の一分野。 英語では geohydrology(地下水学) の語がしばしば互換的に用いられる。当学問分野を主に地質学(geohydrology)に応用する水文学者あるいは技術者と、水文学(hydrogeology)に応用する地質学者との間で、使用する用語に若干の差異が存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Hydrogeology)