• geology
  • The study or science of the earth, its history, and its life as recorded in the rocks; includes the study of geologic features of an area, such as the geometry of rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Geology (from Ancient Greek γῆ (gê) 'earth', and λoγία (-logía) 'study of, discourse') is a branch of natural science concerned with Earth and other astronomical objects, the features or rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other Earth sciences, including hydrology, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated Earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates. Geologists broadly study the properties and processes of Earth and other terrestrial planets and predominantly solid planetary bodies. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it is central to geological engineering and plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.

    地質学(ちしつがく、英: geology)とは、地面より下(生物起源の土壌を除く)の地層・岩石を研究する、地球科学の学問分野である。広義には地球化学を含める場合もある。 1603年、イタリア語でgeologiaという言葉がはじめてつかわれた。当時はまれにしか使用されていなかったが、1795年以降一般に受け入れられた。