Experiment

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  • experiment
definition
  • A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exist natural experimental studies. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand how things fall to the ground, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles). Uses of experiments vary considerably between the natural and human sciences. Experiments typically include controls, which are designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements. Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method. Ideally, all variables in an experiment are controlled (accounted for by the control measurements) and none are uncontrolled. In such an experiment, if all controls work as expected, it is possible to conclude that the experiment works as intended, and that results are due to the effect of the tested variables.

    実験(じっけん、英語: experiment)は、構築された仮説や、既存の理論が実際に当てはまるかどうかを確認することや、既存の理論からは予測が困難な対象について、さまざまな条件の下で様々な測定を行うこと。知識を得るための手法の一つ。 実験は観察(測定も含む)と共に科学の基本的な方法の一つである。ただ、観察が対象そのものを、その姿のままに知ろうとするのに対して、実験ではそれに何らかの操作をくわえ、それによって生じる対象に起こる変化を調べ、そこから何らかの結論を出そうとするものである。ある実験の結果が正しいかどうかを確かめることを追試という。 工学においては、規範的実験と設計的実験とに分類できる。 * 規範的実験とは、理論と原理を検証し、知識を理解・定着させ、基本的な実験操作技能や厳密で着実な作業態度を育成することを目的にしている。 * 設計的実験とは、学生の実験設計能力や問題解決能力の育成を重視している。 より一般的な場では、目新しい手法を使う場合や、本番前の試しの意味で実験的という語が使われる場合がある。「実験的な手法」などといった表現がある。また、科学史の上では、特にその分野で重要な発見の元になった実験に対して、「○○の実験」といった固有名詞をつくる。普通は関わった研究者の名をつけて呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Experiment)