Economy

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  • economy
definition
  • The system of activities and administration through which a society uses its resources to produce wealth.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    An economy (from Ancient Greek οἰκονομία (oikonomía) 'management of a household, administration'; from οἶκος (oîkos) 'household', and νέμω (némō) 'distribute, allocate') is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. In general, it is defined 'as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of scarce resources'. A given economy is a set of processes that involves its culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of interrelated human practices and transactions that does not stand alone. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two groups or parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources, labor and capital. It has changed over time due to technology, innovation (new products, services, processes, expanding markets, diversification of markets, niche markets, increases revenue functions) such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations (most notably child labor being replaced in some parts of the world with universal access to education). A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency. A command-based economy is one where political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold and distributed. A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. A gig economy is one in which short-term jobs are assigned or chosen via online platforms. New economy is a term that referred to the whole emerging ecosystem where new standards and practices were introduced, usually as a result of technological innovations. The global economy refers to humanity's economic system or systems overall.

    経済(けいざい、(希: οικονομία、羅: oeconomia、英: economy〈エコノミー〉)とは、社会が生産活動を調整するシステム、あるいはその生産活動を指す。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Economy)

    An economy (from Ancient Greek οἰκονομία (oikonomía) 'management of a household, administration'; from οἶκος (oîkos) 'household', and νέμω (némō) 'distribute, allocate') is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. In general, it is defined 'as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of scarce resources'. A given economy is a set of processes that involves its culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of interrelated human practices and transactions that does not stand alone. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two groups or parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources, labor and capital. It has changed over time due to technology, innovation (new products, services, processes, expanding markets, diversification of markets, niche markets, increases revenue functions) such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations (most notably child labor being replaced in some parts of the world with universal access to education). A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency. A command-based economy is one where political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold and distributed. A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. A gig economy is one in which short-term jobs are assigned or chosen via online platforms. New economy is a term that referred to the whole emerging ecosystem where new standards and practices were introduced, usually as a result of technological innovations. The global economy refers to humanity's economic system or systems overall.

    経済体系(けいざいたいけい、英: Economic system, economic order) 、経済体制(けいざいたいせい)、経済システム(けいざいしすてむ)とは、社会またはある地域内において、生産、資源配分、財とサービスの分配を行うシステムである。経済体系は社会体制の一部であり、法体系、政治システム、文化などと階層的に同等であると考えることができる。経済体系はその領域内の経済構造を構成する様々な制度、機関、事業体、意思決定過程、消費パターンの組み合わせからなる。マルクス経済学などにおいては、類似の概念を、特に生産側に着目する形で生産様式と表現することもある。 全ての経済体系は、以下に示す4つの基本的な経済問題に直面し、解決しなければならない。 * どのような種類と量の商品を生産するか。 * どのように商品を生産するか。 * 生産物をどのように分配するか。 * いつ生産するか。 それぞれの経済体系がどのようにこれらの問題を解決するかは、経済学における主要な関心の一つである。 経済体系の研究は、その体系を構成する機関や組織などの結びつき方、それらの間での情報のやり取り、(所有権理論や経営構造を含む)システム内の社会的関係などを対象とする。特定のイデオロギーや政治システムは、特定の経済体系としばしば強い相関関係がある(例えば、「共産主義」など)。そのため、経済体系の分析は伝統的に、市場経済と計画経済の二項対立と比較や、資本主義と社会主義の区別に焦点を当てていた。しかし、伝統的な二分法に当てはまらない現実が観察されるようになったこと、それらから新たな経済モデルが導かれたことなどから、経済体系の分類は新たな枠組みを取り入れていった。実際に多くの経済体系は、その範囲を明確に区分できるものではなく、境界において互いに重複し合う領域を持つと考えられている。たとえば、今日の世界においては、市場志向でありながら政府の規制や公共部門の役割をかなりの程度含む混合経済に基づく経済体制が優勢であるとされる。また、これらの大きな枠組み以外にも、より細かく専門分化された経済体系の分類が存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Economy)