Hash function

  • SPASE Hash Function
  • A function or algorithm that converts a digital data object into a hash value. Typically the hash value is small and concise when compared to the digital data object. Allowed Values: MD5 SHA1 SHA256
Abstract from DBPedia
    A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to fixed-size values. The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes, digests, or simply hashes. The values are usually used to index a fixed-size table called a hash table. Use of a hash function to index a hash table is called hashing or scatter storage addressing. Hash functions and their associated hash tables are used in data storage and retrieval applications to access data in a small and nearly constant time per retrieval. They require an amount of storage space only fractionally greater than the total space required for the data or records themselves. Hashing is a computationally and storage space-efficient form of data access that avoids the non-constant access time of ordered and unordered lists and structured trees, and the often exponential storage requirements of direct access of state spaces of large or variable-length keys. Use of hash functions relies on statistical properties of key and function interaction: worst-case behaviour is intolerably bad with a vanishingly small probability, and average-case behaviour can be nearly optimal (minimal collision). Hash functions are related to (and often confused with) checksums, check digits, fingerprints, lossy compression, randomization functions, error-correcting codes, and ciphers. Although the concepts overlap to some extent, each one has its own uses and requirements and is designed and optimized differently. The hash function differs from these concepts mainly in terms of data integrity.

    ハッシュ関数 (ハッシュかんすう、英: hash function) あるいは要約関数とは、任意のデータから、別の(多くの場合は短い固定長の)値を得るための操作、または、その様な値を得るための関数のこと。ハッシュ関数から得られた値のことを要約値やハッシュ値または単にハッシュという。 ハッシュ関数は、主に検索の高速化やデータ比較処理の高速化、さらには改竄の検出に使われる。例えば、データベース内の項目を探したり、大きなファイル内で重複しているレコードや似ているレコードを検出したり、核酸の並びから類似する配列を探したりといった場合に利用できる。 ハッシュ関数は、チェックサム、チェックディジット、フィンガープリント、誤り訂正符号、暗号学的ハッシュ関数などと関係がある。それぞれ用途が異なり、異なった形で設計・最適化されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Hash_function)