Boiling point

  • boiling point
  • The temperature at which the transition from the liquid to the gaseous phase occurs in a pure substance at fixed pressure.
Abstract from DBPedia
    The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at low pressure has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. Because of this, water boils at 99.97 °C (211.95 °F) under standard pressure at sea level, but at 93.4 °C (200.1 °F) at 1,905 metres (6,250 ft) altitude. For a given pressure, different liquids will boil at different temperatures. The normal boiling point (also called the atmospheric boiling point or the atmospheric pressure boiling point) of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, one atmosphere. At that temperature, the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and allow bubbles of vapor to form inside the bulk of the liquid. The standard boiling point has been defined by IUPAC since 1982 as the temperature at which boiling occurs under a pressure of one bar. The heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity (a mol, kg, pound, etc.) of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure (often atmospheric pressure). Liquids may change to a vapor at temperatures below their boiling points through the process of evaporation. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon in which molecules located near the liquid's edge, not contained by enough liquid pressure on that side, escape into the surroundings as vapor. On the other hand, boiling is a process in which molecules anywhere in the liquid escape, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles within the liquid.

    沸点(ふってん、英語: boiling point)とは、液体の飽和蒸気圧が外圧と等しくなる温度である。沸騰点または沸騰温度(英語: boiling temperature)ともいう。沸騰している液体の温度は、沸点にほぼ等しい。 純物質の沸点は、一定の外圧のもとでは、その物質に固有の値となる。例えば外圧が 1.00 気圧 のときの水の沸点は 100.0 ℃ であり、酸素の沸点は −183.0 ℃ である。外圧が変われば同じ液体でも沸点は変わる。一般に、外圧が高くなると沸点は上がり、低くなると沸点は下がる。例えば外圧が 2.00 気圧になると水の沸点は 120.6 ℃ まで上昇し、外圧が 0.64 気圧になると 87.9 ℃ まで降下する。 外圧を指定しないで単に沸点というときには、1 気圧すなわち 101325Pa のときの沸点を指していうことが多い。1 気圧のときの沸点であることを明示するときには normal boiling point (NBP, 標準沸点、通常沸点)という。また、1 バールすなわち 100000Pa のときの沸点を standard boiling point (SBP, 標準沸点)という。日本語で標準沸点というときには NBP を指していうことが多いが、SBP を指していうこともある。NBP と SBP の差は小さい。例えば水の NBP は 99.97 ℃ で SBP は 99.61 ℃ である。