Weather forecasting

  • weather forecasting
  • The act or process of predicting and highlighting meteorological conditions that are expected for a specific time period and for a specific area or portion of air space, by using objective models based on certain atmospheric parameters, along with the skill and experience of a meteorologist.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere, land, and ocean and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change at a given place. Once calculated manually based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition or cloud cover, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases. The inaccuracy of forecasting is due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, the land, and the ocean, the error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric and related processes. Hence, forecasts become less accurate as the difference between current time and the time for which the forecast is being made (the range of the forecast) increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and provide confidence level in the forecast. There is a vast variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect life and property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, and therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, many use weather forecasts to determine what to wear on a given day. Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead and survive them. Weather forecasting is a part of the economy, for example, in 2009, the US spent approximately $5.1 billion on weather forecasting, producing benefits estimated at six times as much.

    天気予報(てんきよほう)とは、ある地域で天気がどう変化するか予測し、知らせること。気象予報(きしょうよほう)ともいう。 過去の天気や現況の天気、気圧、風向、風速、気温、湿度など大気の状態に関する情報を収集し、これをもとに、特定の地域あるいは広範囲な領域に対し、当日から数日後まで(種類によっては数ヶ月後に及ぶものもある)の天気風、風、気温などの大気の状態と、それに関連する水域や地面の状態を予測して伝えるものである。