• viscosity
  • Energy dissipation and generation of stresses in a fluid by the distortion of fluid elements; quantitatively, when otherwise qualified, the absolute viscosity. Also known as flow resistance.
Abstract from DBPedia
    The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness": for example, syrup has a higher viscosity than water. Viscosity quantifies the internal frictional force between adjacent layers of fluid that are in relative motion. For instance, when a viscous fluid is forced through a tube, it flows more quickly near the tube's axis than near its walls. Experiments show that some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to sustain the flow. This is because a force is required to overcome the friction between the layers of the fluid which are in relative motion. For a tube with a constant rate of flow, the strength of the compensating force is proportional to the fluid's viscosity. In general, viscosity depends on a fluid's state, such as its temperature, pressure, and rate of deformation. However, the dependence on some of these properties is negligible in certain cases. For example, the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid does not vary significantly with the rate of deformation. Zero viscosity (no resistance to shear stress) is observed only at very low temperatures in superfluids; otherwise, the second law of thermodynamics requires all fluids to have positive viscosity. A fluid that has zero viscosity is called ideal or inviscid.

    粘度(ねんど、ドイツ語: Viskosität、フランス語: viscosité、英語: viscosity)は、物質のねばりの度合である。粘性率、粘性係数、または(動粘度と区別するため) 絶対粘度とも呼ぶ。一般には流体が持つ性質とされるが、粘弾性などの性質を持つ固体でも用いられる。 量記号にはμまたはηが用いられる。SI単位はPa·s(パスカル秒)である。CGS単位系ではP(ポアズ、10-1Pa·s)が用いられた。動粘度(後述)の単位として、cm2/s = 10−4m2/s = 1 St(ストークス)も使われる(即ち、1 mm2/s = 1 cSt(センチストークス))。工業的にはセイボルト秒も使われる。