• toxicology
  • A science that deals with poisons, their actions, their detection, and the treatment of the conditions they produce.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage, duration of exposure (whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment. Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning. There is a movement for evidence-based toxicology as part of the larger movement towards evidence-based practices. Toxicology is currently contributing to the field of cancer research, since some toxins can be used as drugs for killing tumor cells. One prime example of this is ribosome-inactivating proteins, tested in the treatment of leukemia. The word toxicology (/ˌtɒksɪˈkɒlədʒi/) is a neoclassical compound from New Latin, first attested circa 1799, from the combining forms toxico- + -logy, which in turn come from the Ancient Greek words τοξικός toxikos, "poisonous", and λόγος logos, "subject matter").

    毒性学(どくせいがく、Toxicology)とは、毒性、すなわち物質等による生物への悪影響に関する科学の分野である。具体的には、物質の種類や物理的・化学的性質と毒性との関係、毒性による症状およびその治療法、生物体内で毒性が発現する機序などを対象とし、物質のほかに放射線や紫外線などの物理的作用を対象に含める場合もある。一般に毒あるいは毒物、毒薬などという場合には毒性(特に急性毒性)が強い場合をいうが、毒性学の対象にはそれ以外の物質(たとえ食塩や砂糖でも大量に摂取すれば毒性がある)も含める。薬学、医学あるいは獣医学の1分野である。特に医薬品はその効力とともに強い毒性も併せ持つことが多く、開発に当たっては毒性を明らかにすることが不可欠である。また化学物質の法的規制の基礎を科学的に研究する分野<レギュラトリ・サイエンスRegulatory science>の中でも重要な位置を占める。