Biological activity

  • biological activity
Abstract from DBPedia
    In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter. When a drug is a complex chemical mixture, this activity is exerted by the substance's active ingredient or pharmacophore but can be modified by the other constituents. Among the various properties of chemical compounds, pharmacological/biological activity plays a crucial role since it suggests uses of the compounds in the medical applications. However, chemical compounds may show some adverse and toxic effects which may prevent their use in medical practice. Activity is generally dosage-dependent. Further, it is common to have effects ranging from beneficial to adversefor one substance when going from low to high doses. Activity depends critically on fulfillment of the ADME criteria. To be an effective drug, a compound not only must be active against a target, but also possess the appropriate ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) properties necessary to make it suitable for use as a drug. Bioactivity is a key property that promotes osseointegration for bonding and better stability of dental implants. Bioglass coatings represent high surface area and reactivity leading to an effective interaction of the coating material and surrounding bone tissues. In the biological environment, the formation of a layer of (CHA) initiates bonding to the bone tissues. The bioglass surface coating undergoes leaching/exchange of ions, dissolution of glass, and formation of the HA layer that promotes cellular response of tissues. The high specific surface area of bioactive glasses is likely to induce quicker solubility of the material, availability of ions in the surrounding area, and enhanced protein adsorption ability. These factors altogether contribute toward the bioactivity of bioglass coatings. In addition, tissue mineralization (bone, teeth) is promoted while tissue forming cells are in direct contact with bioglass materials. Whereas a material is considered bioactive if it has interaction with or effect on any cell tissue in the human body, pharmacological activity is usually taken to describe beneficial effects, i.e. the effects of drug candidates as well as a substance's toxicity. In the study of biomineralisation, bioactivity is often meant to mean the formation of calcium phosphate deposits on the surface of objects placed in simulated body fluid, a buffer solution with ion content similar to blood.

    生理活性(せいりかっせい、英: biological activity、pharmacological activity)とは、生体内化学物質が生体の特定の生理的調節機能に対して作用する性質のことである。また、生理活性を持つ化学物質は生理活性物質(せいりかっせいぶっしつ、英: synthesis of physiological substance、physiologically active substance、bioactive substance)と呼ばれる。 生体内ではさまざまなが酵素の活性調節や受容体を介した細胞内シグナル伝達により調節されている。これらの調節作用は固有の生体物質を酵素や受容体が認識することで正あるいは負の調節作用が発現する。 この機能は酵素や受容体などホスト物質がゲスト物質である化学物質を認識することで生じる。そのため、ある化学物質が複数の異なる生理機能を持つホスト物質に対してそれぞれ作用する場合は、1種類の物質であっても複数の生理活性を持つということになる。逆にゲスト物質の認識にも揺らぎが存在する為、生体内物質以外の物質でも生理活性を持つものもある。あるいはホスト物質に対する作用を、ホスト物質以外の生体内物質が妨害することによっても、通常とは逆の調節機能を発現するので、結果として生理活性を持つということになる物質も存在する。