• biogas
  • Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an air-tight container. It is used as a fuel, to heat stoves, lamps, run small machines and to generate electricity. The residues of biogas production are used as a low-grade organic fertilizer. Biogas fuels do not usually cause any pollution to the atmosphere, and because they come from renewable energy resources they have great potential for future use.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Biogas is a mixture of gases, primarily consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste and food waste. It is a renewable energy source. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms or methanogen inside an anaerobic digester, biodigester or a bioreactor. Biogas is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used in fuel cells and for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed after removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, the same way as natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. In the United Kingdom, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel. It qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane. Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide. As the organic material grows, it is converted and used. It then regrows in a continually repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as much carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released, when the material is ultimately converted to energy.

    バイオガス(Biogas)は、バイオ燃料の一種で、生物の排泄物、有機質肥料、生分解性物質、汚泥、汚水、ゴミ、エネルギー作物などの発酵、嫌気性消化により発生するガス。例えば、サトウキビや下水処理場の活性汚泥などを利用して、気密性の高い発酵槽(タンク)で生産される。メタン、二酸化炭素が主成分。発生したメタンをそのまま利用したり、燃焼させて電力などのエネルギーを得たりする。バイオガスは非枯渇性の再生可能資源であり、下水処理場などから発生する未利用ガス等も利用が期待されている。 日本ガス協会もバイオガス利用促進センターを設置し、バイオガス利用促進の取り組みを行っている。国や自治体が化石燃料や都市ガス電力に炭素税を課税する議論があるが、バイオガスは、化石燃料とは異なりカーボンニュートラルであるため非課税になる可能性がある。