• taxonomy
  • The branch of biology concerned with the classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structures, origin, etc.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification. A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are organized into groups or types. Among other things, a taxonomy can be used to organize and index knowledge (stored as documents, articles, videos, etc.), such as in the form of a library classification system, or a search engine taxonomy, so that users can more easily find the information they are searching for. Many taxonomies are hierarchies (and thus, have an intrinsic tree structure), but not all are. Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a categorisation of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a categorisation. Taxonomy organizes taxonomic units known as "taxa" (singular "taxon")." Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which deals with the categorisation of parts of a whole.

    分類体系(ぶんるいたいけい)では、諸学問における分類の実践と分類体系および一般化された分類学について述べる。「分類」に相当する英語には「タクソノミー(taxonomy)」と「クラシフィケーション(classification)」があるが、ここでは前に相当するもののうち、生物分類学に限定されない意味のものを扱う。タクソノミーの語源は、ギリシア語の τάξις:taxis('秩序'や'整理'の意)と νόμος:nomos('法'や'科学'の意)に由来し、分類の結果生じるグループを分類群またはタクソン(taxon)と呼ぶ。 「タクソノミー」は元々は生物学の分類学を前提として使われる語であるが、後に他の分野でも、もの又は概念の分類体系、あるいはその分類が基づく原理を指すようになった。