Soil formation

  • soil formation
  • The combination of natural processes by which soils are formed. It is also known as pedogenesis. The most important soil-forming factors are parent material, terrain, climate, aspect, vegetation cover, microorganisms in the soil and the age of the land surface. Some pedologists would add to this list the influence of human activities. All the factors exhibit varying degrees of interrelationship and some are more important than others, with climate often being singled out as the most important.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Soil formation, also known as pedogenesis, is the process of soil genesis as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history. Biogeochemical processes act to both create and destroy order (anisotropy) within soils. These alterations lead to the development of layers, termed soil horizon, distinguished by differences in color, structure, texture, and chemistry. These features occur in patterns of soil type distribution, forming in response to differences in soil forming factors. Pedogenesis is studied as a branch of pedology, the study of soil in its natural environment. Other branches of pedology are the study of soil morphology, and soil classification. The study of pedogenesis is important to understanding soil distribution patterns in current (soil geography) and past (paleopedology) geologic periods.