• salmonella
  • General name for a family of microorganisms, one of the largest groups of bacteria, that includes those most frequently implicated in food poisoning and gastroenteritis. Unhygienic handling and inadequate cooking of poultry and meat, improper storage of cold meats and, more recently, contamination of battery-reared hen eggs, are the most common sources of salmonella infections.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,600 serotypes. Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon (1850–1914), an American veterinary surgeon. Salmonella species are non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with cell diameters between about 0.7 and 1.5 μm, lengths from 2 to 5 μm, and peritrichous flagella (all around the cell body, allowing them to move). They are chemotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions, using organic sources. They are also facultative anaerobes, capable of generating ATP with oxygen ("aerobically") when it is available, or using other electron acceptors or fermentation ("anaerobically") when oxygen is not available. Salmonella species are intracellular pathogens, of which certain serotypes cause illness. Most infections are due to ingestion of food contaminated by animal feces, or by human feces, such as by a food-service worker at a commercial eatery. Salmonella serotypes can be divided into two main groups—typhoidal and nontyphoidal. Nontyphoidal serotypes are zoonotic and can be transferred from animal-to-human and from human-to-human. They usually invade only the gastrointestinal tract and cause salmonellosis, the symptoms of which can be resolved without antibiotics. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, nontyphoidal Salmonella can be invasive and cause paratyphoid fever, which requires immediate treatment with antibiotics. Typhoidal serotypes can only be transferred from human-to-human, and can cause food-borne infection, typhoid fever, and paratyphoid fever. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella invading the bloodstream (the typhoidal form), or in addition spreading throughout the body, invading organs, and secreting endotoxins (the septic form). This can lead to life-threatening hypovolemic shock and septic shock, and requires intensive care including antibiotics.

    サルモネラ (Salmonella) は、グラム陰性 通性嫌気性桿菌の腸内細菌科の一属(サルモネラ属)に属する細菌。主にヒトや動物の消化管に生息する腸内細菌の一種であり、その一部はヒトや動物に感染して病原性を示す。ヒトに対して病原性を持つサルモネラ属の細菌は、三類感染症に指定されている腸チフスやパラチフスを起こすもの(チフス菌 S. enterica serovar Typhiとパラチフス菌 S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A)と、感染型食中毒を起こすもの(食中毒性サルモネラ:ネズミチフス菌 S. enterica serovar Typhimuriumや腸炎菌 S. enterica serovar Enteritidisなど)とに大別される。食品衛生の分野では、後者にあたる食中毒の原因となるサルモネラを特にサルモネラ属菌と呼ぶが、一般には、これらを指して狭義にサルモネラあるいはサルモネラ菌と呼ぶこともある。細胞内寄生性細菌であり、チフス菌やパラチフス菌は主にマクロファージに感染して菌血症を、それ以外の食中毒性サルモネラは腸管上皮細胞に感染して胃腸炎を起こす性質を持ち、この細胞内感染がサルモネラの病原性に関与している。 Salmonellaという属名は、1885年にアメリカでサルモネラ属の基準株であるブタコレラ菌 S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis を発見した細菌学者、にちなんで名付けられた。ただし、サルモネラ属に属する細菌の分離はそれ以前から行われており、ヒトに対する病原性サルモネラとして最初に分離されたのはチフス菌 S. enterica serovar Typhi である。チフス菌は1880年にカール・エーベルトにより命名され、1884年にゲオルク・ガフキーがその純培養に成功した。