• reef
  • A line of rocks in the tidal zone of a coast, submerged at high water but partly uncovered at low water.
Abstract from DBPedia
    A reef is a ridge or shoal of rock, coral or similar relatively stable material, lying beneath the surface of a natural body of water. Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, etc.—but there are also reefs such as the coral reefs of tropical waters formed by biotic processes dominated by corals and coralline algae, and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks and other anthropogenic underwater structures may occur intentionally or as the result of an accident, and sometimes have a designed role in enhancing the physical complexity of featureless sand bottoms, to attract a more diverse assemblage of organisms. Reefs are often quite near to the surface, but not all definitions require this. Earth's largest coral reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 miles).

    暗礁(あんしょう、sunken rock)は、常に水面下にある岩礁である。岩石や珊瑚礁で出来ており、船舶にとっては座礁の恐れがある危険な場所となっている。