• phytoplankton
  • Planktonic plant life.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Phytoplankton (/ˌfaɪtoʊˈplæŋktən/) are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of ocean and freshwater ecosystems. The name comes from the Greek words φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant', and πλαγκτός (planktos), meaning 'wanderer' or 'drifter'. Phytoplankton obtain their energy through photosynthesis, as do trees and other plants on land. This means phytoplankton must have light from the sun, so they live in the well-lit surface layers (euphotic zone) of oceans and lakes. In comparison with terrestrial plants, phytoplankton are distributed over a larger surface area, are exposed to less seasonal variation and have markedly faster turnover rates than trees (days versus decades). As a result, phytoplankton respond rapidly on a global scale to climate variations. Phytoplankton form the base of marine and freshwater food webs and are key players in the global carbon cycle. They account for about half of global photosynthetic activity and at least half of the oxygen production, despite amounting to only about 1% of the global plant biomass. Phytoplankton are very diverse, varying from photosynthesizing bacteria to plant-like algae to armour-plated coccolithophores. Important groups of phytoplankton include the diatoms, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although many other groups are represented. Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye. However, when present in high enough numbers, some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells and accessory pigments (such as phycobiliproteins or xanthophylls) in some species.

    植物プランクトン(しょくぶつプランクトン、Phytoplankton)とは、プランクトンのうち独立栄養生物の総称である。ギリシャ語でphytonは植物、πλαγκτος は漂流者を意味する。多くの植物プランクトンは小さすぎて裸眼で個体を識別することはできない。しかし十分多くの数が集まれば、その葉緑素によって水全体が緑色に染まって見える。