Atmosphere

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  • atmosphere
definition
  • The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth in a several kilometers-thick layer.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    An atmosphere (from Ancient Greek ἀτμός (atmós) 'vapour, steam', and σφαῖρα (sphaîra) 'sphere') is a layer of gas or layers of gases that envelope a planet, and is held in place by the gravity of the planetary body. A planet retains an atmosphere when the gravity is great and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star, which includes the layers above the opaque photosphere; stars of low temperature might have outer atmospheres containing compound molecules. The atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.04%) and trace gases. Most organisms use oxygen for respiration; lightning and bacteria perform nitrogen fixation to produce ammonia that is used to make nucleotides and amino acids; plants, algae, and cyanobacteria use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. The layered composition of the atmosphere minimises the harmful effects of sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, the solar wind, and cosmic rays to protect organisms from genetic damage. The current composition of the atmosphere of the Earth is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms.

    大気圏(たいきけん、英: atmosphere)とは、大気の球状層(圏)。大気(たいき、英: atmosphere、羅: Atmosphaera)とは、惑星、衛星などの(大質量の)天体を取り囲む気体を言う 。大気は天体の重力によって引きつけられ、保持(宇宙空間への拡散が妨げられること)されている。天体の重力が強く、大気の温度が低いほど大気は保持される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Atmosphere)