• pathology
  • The branch of medicine concerned with the causes, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of biology research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is often used in a narrower fashion to refer to processes and tests that fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology", an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease, mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples. Idiomatically, "a pathology" may also refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases (as in the statement "the many different forms of cancer have diverse pathologies", in which case a more proper choice of word would be "pathophysiologies"), and the affix pathy is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment (as in cardiomyopathy) and psychological conditions (such as psychopathy). A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist. As a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations). In common medical practice, general pathology is mostly concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease, and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology). Pathology is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research.

    病理学(びょうりがく)(英: pathology)とは、病気の原因、発生機序の解明や病気の診断を確定するのを目的とする、医学の一分野である。 細胞、組織、臓器の標本を、肉眼や顕微鏡などを用いて検査し、それらが病気に侵されたときにどういった変化を示すかについて研究する学問である。 歯科分野においては、口腔病理学という分野で存在し、歯学部に設置されている。