Mineral

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  • mineral
definition
  • A naturally occurring substance with a characteristic chemical composition expressed by a chemical formula; may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other material or rock.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound. Most often, they are crystalline and abiogenic in origin. A mineral is different from a rock, which can be an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals and does not have one specific chemical composition, as a mineral does. The exact definition of a mineral is under debate, especially with respect to the requirement that a valid species be abiogenic, and to a lesser extent with regard to it having an ordered atomic structure. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. There are over 5,300 known mineral species; over 5,070 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth's crust. The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, and specific gravity. More specific tests for describing minerals include magnetism, taste or smell, radioactivity and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents; the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification. The silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a base unit of a [SiO4]4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions, which gives the shape of a tetrahedron. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses: orthosilicates (no polymerization, thus single tetrahedra), disilicates (two tetrahedra bonded together), cyclosilicates (rings of tetrahedra), inosilicates (chains of tetrahedra), phyllosilicates (sheets of tetrahedra), and tectosilicates (three-dimensional network of tetrahedra). Other important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates.

    鉱物(こうぶつ、mineral、ミネラル)とは、一般的には、地質学的作用により形成される、天然に産する一定の化学組成を有した無機質結晶質物質のことを指す。一部例外があるが(炭化水素であるカルパチア石など)、鉱物として記載されるためには、人工結晶や活動中の生物に含まれるものは厳密に排除される。また鉱物は、固体でなければならない(こちらにも、水銀などの例外もある)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Mineral)

related datapublication(s) found by skos:relatedMatch or skos:closeMatch)
  • EnGeoMAP Test Data: Simulated EnMAP Satellite Data for Mountain Pass, USA and Rodalquilar, Spain

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/enmap.2016.001)

  • Accessory Minerals in Felsic Igneous Rocks - Part 1: Composition of monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y) and zircon from the multi-stage, peraluminous two-mica granite massif of Bergen (Erzgebirge−Vogtland metallogenic province, Germany)

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.6.2.2018.001)

  • Accessory Minerals in Felsic Igneous Rocks - Part 2: Composition of monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y) and zircon from the multi-stage, strongly peraluminous, P-F-rich Li-mica granite massif of Eibenstock (Erzgebirge−Vogtland metallogenic province, Germany)

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.6.2.2018.002)

  • Accessory Minerals in Felsic Igneous Rocks - Part 3: Composition of monazite-(Ce) from Paleoproterozoic granitoids and gneisses from the Fort McMurray area (Alberta, Canada)

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.6.2.2018.004)

  • Accessory Minerals in Felsic Igneous Rocks - Part 4: Composition of allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y) and zircon from the multi-stage, weakly peraluminous F-poor granite massifs of Kirchberg and Niederbobritzsch (Erzgebirge−Vogtland metallogenic province, Germany)

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.8.2019.001)

  • Data supplement to: Laser ablation in situ silicon stable isotope analysis of phytoliths

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.3.3.2018.002)

  • Accessory Minerals in Felsic Igneous Rocks - Part 5: Composition of monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y) and zircon from two geochemically distinct occurrences of highly evolved Li-F granite: The Pobershau-Satzung massif and the Seiffen granite (Erzgebirge−Vogtland metallogenic province, Germany)

    (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.8.2019.002)