- Government, control, superintendence, physical or manual handling or guidance; act of managing by direction or regulation, or administration, as management of family, or of household, etc.
|Abstract from DBPedia||
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a non-profit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. "Run the business" and "Change the business" are two concepts that are used in management to differentiate between the continued delivery of goods or services and adapting of goods or services to meet the changing needs of customers - see trend. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization—managers. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA.) Master of Business Administration (MBA.) Master in Management (MSM or MIM) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the Ph.D. in Business Administration or Management. There has recently been a movement for evidence-based management. Larger organizations generally have three hierarchical levels of managers, in a pyramid structure:
* Senior managers, such as members of a board of directors and a chief executive officer (CEO) or a president of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally professionals and provide direction to middle management, who directly or indirectly report to them.
* Middle managers: examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers, and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
* Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, a manager may have a much wider scope and may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization, organizational adaptation, and organizational leadership.
経営管理論（けいえいかんりろん、英語：business management、management administration）は、組織・団体（主に企業）の管理についての実践的な技法（経営管理）の確立を目指す学問であり、経営学を構成する分野の一つ。20世紀初頭、科学的管理法を提唱し、「経営学の父」と呼ばれたフレデリック・テイラーがその始まりとされており、また「管理原則（管理過程論）の父」と呼ばれたアンリ・ファヨールによる研究により、学問として成立。その後、主にアメリカで研究が発展した。 現在では、企業経営の大規模化･複雑化に伴って組織を構成する要素及び経営に関わる要素は多岐に亘るようになった結果、経営管理の扱う範囲がたいへん広くなり、また専門性が強くなったため、一般に、その管理対象に応じて細分化されている。例えばヒトの面の管理は人事労務管理（人事管理）論、カネの面の管理は財務管理論など。