Landscape architecture

  • landscape architecture
  • The creation, development, and decorative planting of gardens, grounds, parks, and other outdoor spaces. Landscape gardening is used to enhance nature helping to create a natural setting for individual residences and buildings, and even towns, particularly where special approaches and central settings are required.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic design and general engineering of various structures for construction and human use, investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of other interventions that will produce desired outcomes. The scope of the profession is broad and can be subdivided into several sub-categories including professional or licensed landscape architects who are regulated by governmental agencies and possess the expertise to design a wide range of structures and landforms for human use; landscape design which is not a licensed profession; site planning; stormwater management; erosion control; environmental restoration; parks, recreation and urban planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture may be called a landscape architect, however in jurisdictions where professional licenses are required it is often only those who possess a landscape architect license who can be called a landscape architect.

    造園(ぞうえん、造苑, Landscape architecture)とは、庭園などの空間を造ることである。「造苑」とも表記され、韓国では「造景」としている。私的な空間である庭園や公共的な空間である公園などの緑地/緑空間を土木的な基盤整備し、意匠を植物や水などの自然素材、石等の鉱物資源などによって造ることである。 テーマパークなどの施設から、集落や都市の環境改善、などにいたるさまざまな空間を対象に、計画、デザイン、施工、管理にまたがる技術の体系であり、造園そのものは古代から多くの文明で行われてきたが、職能の分化が明確になる近代では、建築、土木や都市計画などとともに環境づくり、環境デザインの主要分野のひとつを成す。また農学分野の中でも美的側面を重要視する専門領域である。最近では専門領域の区別はあいまいになり、分野間のコラボレーションや役割の入れ替わりなどが起こっている。特に景観の保全や整備に関する研究、計画、デザインなどはどの分野でも行われている。