• landfill
  • The oldest method of waste disposal for the solid matter discarded in the domestic dustbin, along with the packaging material and paper from high street shops and offices. Landfill sites are usually disused quarries and gravel pits. When they were filled, previous practice was to cover them up with soil and forget about them. Housing estates have been built, often with disastrous consequences, on old landfill dumps. Waste burial has now become a serious technology and a potential source of energy. Landfill sites can be designed to be bioreactors, which deliberately produce methane, gas as a source of biofuel or alternative energy. Traditionally, waste tips remained exposed to air and aerobic microbes - those which thrive in air - in order to turn some of the waste into compost. However, open tips also encourage vermin, smell in hot weather and disfigure the landscape. In the 1960s, as a tidier and safer option, landfill operators began to seal each day's waste in a clay cell. While excluding vermin, the clay also excluded air. Decomposition relied on anaerobic microbes, which die in air. However, the process produced methane (natural gas), which was a safety hazard. The methane is now extracted by sinking a network of perforated pipes into the site.
Abstract from DBPedia
    A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of waste materials. Landfill is the oldest and most common form of waste disposal, although the systematic burial of the waste with daily, intermediate and final covers only began in the 1940s. In the past, refuse was simply left in piles or thrown into pits; in archeology this is known as a midden. Some landfill sites are used for waste management purposes, such as temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or for various stages of processing waste material, such as sorting, treatment, or recycling. Unless they are stabilized, landfills may undergo severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during an earthquake. Once full the area over a landfill site may be reclaimed for other uses.

    最終処分場(さいしゅうしょぶんじょう、英: final landfill site)とは、廃棄物(ごみ)を埋め立てて最終的に処分する施設のこと。燃やしたごみの焼却灰や不要品のうちリユース(再利用)、リサイクル(再資源化、サーマルリサイクルを含む)が困難なものを処分するための施設のこと。ごみ処分場、ごみ埋立地、埋立処分場などとも呼ばれる。 日本では廃棄物の処理及び清掃に関する法律(廃棄物処理法と略される)に定められた構造基準と維持管理基準に基づいて設置・運営され、同法に定められた廃棄物の区分に従い埋立処分される。満杯になったら終了し、その後に廃止される。2021年時点、日本には1775カ所あり、大半は山間部で、東京都区部のような海岸近くの海面埋め立てが38カ所である。 最終処分には海洋投棄と土壌還元があるが、2007年度より海洋投棄は原則禁止となった(海面埋立は土壌還元に含まれる)。 なお放射性廃棄物は同法の対象外であり、その最終処分場は2021年時点、日本国内では候補地も決まっていない。