• iodine
  • A nonmetallic halogen element; the poisonous, corrosive dark plates or granules are readily sublimed; insoluble in water, soluble in common solvents; used as germicide and antiseptic, in dyes, tinctures, and pharmaceuticals, in engraving lithography, and as a catalyst and analytical reagent.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a semi-lustrous, non-metallic solid at standard conditions that melts to form a deep violet liquid at 114 °C (237 °F), and boils to a violet gas at 184 °C (363 °F). The element was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811 and was named two years later by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, after the Ancient Greek Ιώδης 'violet-coloured'. Iodine occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I−), iodate (IO−3), and the various periodate anions. It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. As the heaviest essential mineral nutrient, iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities. The dominant producers of iodine today are Chile and Japan. Due to its high atomic number and ease of attachment to organic compounds, it has also found favour as a non-toxic radiocontrast material. Because of the specificity of its uptake by the human body, radioactive isotopes of iodine can also be used to treat thyroid cancer. Iodine is also used as a catalyst in the industrial production of acetic acid and some polymers. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.

    ヨウ素(ヨウそ、沃素、英: iodine)は、原子番号 53、原子量 126.9 の元素である。元素記号は I。あるいは分子式が I2 と表される二原子分子であるヨウ素の単体の呼称。 ハロゲン元素の一つ。分子量は253.8。融点は113.6 ℃で、常温、常圧では固体であるが、昇華性がある。固体の結晶系は紫黒色の斜方晶系で、反応性(酸化力)はフッ素、塩素、臭素より小さい。水にはあまり溶けないが、ヨウ化カリウム水溶液にはよく溶ける。これは下式のように、ヨウ化物イオンとの反応が起こることによる。 単体のヨウ素は、日本の毒物及び劇物取締法により医薬用外劇物に指定されている。