• ice
  • The dense substance formed by the freezing of water to the solid state; it commonly occurs in the form of hexagonal crystals.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Ice is water frozen into a solid state, typically forming at or below temperatures of 0 degrees Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice. It is abundant on Earth's surface – particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate. It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes and aggregates from snow as glaciers and ice sheets. Ice exhibits at least eighteen phases (packing geometries), depending on temperature and pressure. When water is cooled rapidly (quenching), up to three types of amorphous ice can form depending on its history of pressure and temperature. When cooled slowly, correlated proton tunneling occurs below −253.15 °C (20 K, −423.67 °F) giving rise to macroscopic quantum phenomena. Virtually all ice on Earth's surface and in its atmosphere is of a hexagonal crystalline structure denoted as ice Ih (spoken as "ice one h") with minute traces of cubic ice, denoted as ice Ic and, more recently found, Ice VII inclusions in diamonds. The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It may also be deposited directly by water vapor, as happens in the formation of frost. The transition from ice to water is melting and from ice directly to water vapor is sublimation. Ice is used in a variety of ways, including for cooling, for winter sports, and ice sculpting.

    氷(冰、こおり)とは、固体の状態にある水のこと。 なお、天文学では宇宙空間に存在する一酸化炭素や二酸化炭素、メタンなど水以外の低分子物質の固体をも氷(誤解を避けるためには「○○の氷」)と呼ぶこともある。また惑星科学では、天王星や海王星の内部に存在する高温高密度の水や、アンモニアの液体のことを氷と呼ぶことがある。さらに日常語でも、固体の二酸化炭素をドライアイスと呼ぶ。 この記事では、水の固体を扱う。


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