• hydrolysis
  • 1) Decomposition or alteration of a chemical substance by water. 2) In aqueous solutions of electrolytes, the reactions of cations with water to produce a weak base or of anions to produce a weak acid.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Hydrolysis (/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro- 'water', and lysis 'to unbind') is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution, elimination, and solvation reactions in which water is the nucleophile. Biological hydrolysis is the cleavage of biomolecules where a water molecule is consumed to effect the separation of a larger molecule into component parts. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is recognized as saccharification. Hydrolysis reactions can be the reverse of a condensation reaction in which two molecules join into a larger one and eject a water molecule. Thus hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water.

    加水分解(かすいぶんかい、英: Hydrolysis)とは、反応物に水が反応し、分解生成物が得られる反応のことである。水解とも呼ばれる。このとき水分子 (H2O) は、生成物の上で H(プロトン成分)と OH(水酸化物成分)とに分割して取り込まれる。反応形式に従った分類により、加水分解にはいろいろな種類の反応が含まれる。 化合物ABが極性を持ち、Aが陽性、Bが陰性であるとき、ABが水と反応するとAはOHと結合し、BはHと結合する形式の反応が一般的である。 加水分解の逆反応は脱水縮合である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Hydrolysis)