• gymnosperm
  • Any seed-bearing plant of the division Gymnospermae, in which the ovules are borne naked on the surface of the mega sporophylls, which are often arranged in cones.
Abstract from DBPedia
    The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes, forming the clade Gymnospermae, the living members of which are also known as Acrogymnospermae. The term gymnosperm comes from the composite word in Greek: γυμνόσπερμος (γυμνός, gymnos, 'naked' and σπέρμα, sperma, 'seed'), literally meaning 'naked seeds'. The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds (called ovules in their unfertilized state). The non-encased condition of their seeds contrasts with the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified to form cones, or solitary as in yew, Torreya, Ginkgo. Gymnosperm lifecycles involve alternation of generations. They have a dominant diploid sporophyte phase and a reduced haploid gametophyte phase which is dependent on the sporophytic phase. The term "gymnosperm" is often used in paleobotany to refer to all non-angiosperm seed plants. In that case, to specify the modern monophyletic group of gymnosperms, the term Acrogymnospermae is sometimes used. The gymnosperms and angiosperms together comprise the spermatophytes or seed plants. The gymnosperms are subdivided into five Divisions, four of which, the Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Pinophyta (also known as Coniferophyta) are still in existence while the Pteridospermatophyta are now extinct. Newer classification place the gnetophytes among the conifers. By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species). About 65% of gymnosperms are dioecious, but conifers are almost all monoecious. Some genera have mycorrhiza, fungal associations with roots (Pinus), while in some others (Cycas) small specialised roots called coralloid roots are associated with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.

    裸子植物(らししょくぶつ、英語: Gymnosperm、学名:Gymnospermae)は、種子植物のうち胚珠がむきだしになっているものを指す。ソテツ類、イチョウ類、マツ類、グネツム類を含む。 裸子植物が単系統であるか側系統であるかについては、分子系統学が発達した今日でも両方の立場があり、答えが出ていない。裸子植物の分類階級は伝統的には門であるが、裸子植物が側系統であると判断する場合には、単系統のみを分類群として認める立場から、裸子植物門を置かず、その代わり、ソテツ門、イチョウ門、マツ門、グネツム門を置く。現生種は約750種が属する。 また、顕花植物と言った場合、裸子植物と被子植物とを含み、裸子植物の生殖器官は花と呼ばれるが、これはリンネに由来する語法である。ただし、裸子植物のそれを花と認めない見方もある。例えば、英語で "flowering plant" と言った場合には、被子植物のみを含める。