Food preservation

  • food preservation
  • Processing designed to protect food from spoilage caused by microbes, enzymes, and autooxidation.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Food preservation includes food processing practices which prevent the growth of microorganisms, such as yeasts (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), and slow the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity. Food preservation may also include processes that inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut during food preparation. By preserving food, food waste can be reduced, which is an important way to decrease production costs and increase the efficiency of food systems, improve food security and nutrition and contribute towards environmental sustainability. For instance, it can reduce the environmental impact of food production. Many processes designed to preserve food involve more than one food preservation method. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, for example, involves boiling (to reduce the fruit's moisture content and to kill bacteria, etc.), sugaring (to prevent their re-growth) and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination). Different food preservation methods have different impacts on the quality of the food and food systems. Some traditional methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input and carbon footprint compared to modern methods. Some methods of food preservation are known to create carcinogens. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization classified processed meat, i.e., meat that has undergone salting, curing, fermenting, and smoking, as "carcinogenic to humans."

    食料保存とは、食料をカビなどの微生物の繁殖、酵素の働きによる腐敗、等をさせず食べられる状態で保存することである。人間や動物が歴史の中で、農作物の不作による飢饉や長い冬の食料不足等に備え、編み出してきた数々の保存法のことである。 これらの方法により、人間は飢えの克服だけでなく、大航海時代のような長期の旅や、余った食料の貿易が可能となった。 大まかな考え方としては、微生物や酵素が使用する水分を無くす水分活性を下げる。微生物や酵素が使用する酸素を無くす。微生物が生きづらい環境(熱、寒さ、酸性・アルカリ性)にする。直接殺菌する。以上のいずれかか、複数の方法を組み合わせて使用される。