• decomposition
  • The more or less permanent breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Decomposition or rot is the process by which dead organic substances are broken down into simpler organic or inorganic matter such as carbon dioxide, water, simple sugars and mineral salts. The process is a part of the nutrient cycle and is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biosphere. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Animals, such as worms, also help decompose the organic materials. Organisms that do this are known as decomposers or detritivores. Although no two organisms decompose in the same way, they all undergo the same sequential stages of decomposition. The science which studies decomposition is generally referred to as taphonomy from the Greek word taphos, meaning tomb. Decomposition can also be a gradual process for organisms that have extended periods of dormancy. One can differentiate abiotic decomposition from biotic decomposition (biodegradation). The former means "the degradation of a substance by chemical or physical processes", e.g., hydrolysis; the latter means "the metabolic breakdown of materials into simpler components by living organisms", typically by microorganisms.

    腐敗(ふはい)とは、有機物が微生物の作用によって変質(不完全分解)する現象をいう。 腐敗には、それにより味の劣化や不快臭、有毒物質が生じる場合(狭義の腐敗)と、有用または無害な場合とがある。また、「精神が堕落し、悪徳がはびこること」を意味することもある。