• corrosion
  • A process in which a solid, especially a metal, is eaten away and changed by a chemical action.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable oxide. It is the gradual deterioration of materials (usually a metal) by chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and preventing corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen, hydrogen or hydroxide. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide(s) or salt(s) of the original metal and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers, although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common. Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including strength, appearance and permeability to liquids and gases. Many structural alloys corrode merely from exposure to moisture in air, but the process can be strongly affected by exposure to certain substances. Corrosion can be concentrated locally to form a pit or crack, or it can extend across a wide area more or less uniformly corroding the surface. Because corrosion is a diffusion-controlled process, it occurs on exposed surfaces. As a result, methods to reduce the activity of the exposed surface, such as passivation and chromate conversion, can increase a material's corrosion resistance. However, some corrosion mechanisms are less visible and less predictable. The chemistry of corrosion is complex; it can be considered an electrochemical phenomenon. During corrosion at a particular spot on the surface of an object made of iron, oxidation takes place and that spot behaves as an anode. The electrons released at this anodic spot move through the metal and go to another spot on the metal and reduce oxygen at that spot in presence of H+ (which is believed to be available from carbonic acid (H2CO3) formed due to dissolution of carbon dioxide from air into water in moist air condition of atmosphere. Hydrogen ion in water may also be available due to dissolution of other acidic oxides from the atmosphere). This spot behaves as a cathode.

    腐食(ふしょく、腐蝕、英: corrosion)とは、化学・生物学的作用により外見や機能が損なわれた物体やその状態をいう。 金属の腐食とは、周囲の環境(隣接している金属・気体など)と化学反応を起こし、溶けたり腐食生成物(いわゆる「さび」)を生成することを指す。これは、一般的に言われる、表面的に「さび」が発生することにとどまらず、腐食により厚さが減少したり、孔が開いたりすることも含む。 金属以外の腐食一般的に、腐食は金属のみで考えられるが、セラミックやプラスチックも腐食・劣化を起こす。生物学的な腐食また、熱傷(特に化学熱傷)の原因として「化学的腐食」という表現が使われることがある(詳細は「熱傷」を参照)ほか、生体あるいは生体由来物質の侵食あるいは腐敗も、腐食と呼ばれることがある。 以下、金属の腐食を中心に述べる。