• chromatography
  • A method of separating and analyzing mixtures of chemical substances by selective adsorption in a column of powder or on a strip of paper.
Abstract from DBPedia
    In chemical analysis, chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture into its components. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid solvent (gas or liquid) called the mobile phase, which carries it through a system (a column, a capillary tube, a plate, or a sheet) on which a material called the stationary phase is fixed. Because the different constituents of the mixture tend to have different affinities for the stationary phase and are retained for different lengths of time depending on their interactions with its surface sites, the constituents travel at different apparent velocities in the mobile fluid, causing them to separate. The separation is based on the differential partitioning between the mobile and the stationary phases. Subtle differences in a compound's partition coefficient result in differential retention on the stationary phase and thus affect the separation. Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. The purpose of preparative chromatography is to separate the components of a mixture for later use, and is thus a form of purification. This process is associated with higher costs due to its mode of production. Analytical chromatography is done normally with smaller amounts of material and is for establishing the presence or measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. The two types are not mutually exclusive.

    クロマトグラフィー (英: chromatography、中: 色譜法) は、ロシアの植物学者ミハイル・ツヴェットが発明した、物質を分離・精製する技法。物質の大きさ・吸着力・電荷・質量・疎水性などの違いを利用して、物質を成分ごとに分離する。 クロマトグラフィーは色(ギリシャ語で chrōma)を分けるといった意味合いを持つ。これは、ツヴェットがクロマトグラフィーで植物色素を分離した際に色素別に色が分かれて帯ができたことに由来する。