• sedimentology
  • The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and of the processes by which they were formed; the description, classification, origin, and interpretation of sediments.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis. Sedimentologists apply their understanding of modern processes to interpret geologic history through observations of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures. Sedimentary rocks cover up to 75% of the Earth's surface, record much of the Earth's history, and harbor the fossil record. Sedimentology is closely linked to stratigraphy, the study of the physical and temporal relationships between rock layers or strata. The premise that the processes affecting the earth today are the same as in the past is the basis for determining how sedimentary features in the rock record were formed. By comparing similar features today to features in the rock record—for example, by comparing modern sand dunes to dunes preserved in ancient aeolian sandstones—geologists reconstruct past environments.

    堆積学(たいせきがく、英語: sedimentology)とは地球科学のうち、堆積物の形成過程やその性質について研究する分野のことである。堆積物に対する風化作用、運搬作用、、続成作用などをもとに、地球環境の考察を行っていく。結果は「石油、天然ガス、石炭などのエネルギー資源の探査」「開発などに伴う自然環境の変化」「自然災害の予測と軽減などに関係する学問体系の基礎」など多方面に活用され、地質学の中でも基礎的な領域に位置している。近年は堆積地質学(たいせきちしつがく、英語: sedimentary geology)と呼ばれることも多い。1970年代から1980年代でのの発展に伴い、堆積学と層序学との距離が縮まっている。