• metrology
  • The science of measurement.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Metrology is the scientific study of measurement. It establishes a common understanding of units, crucial in linking human activities. Modern metrology has its roots in the French Revolution's political motivation to standardise units in France when a length standard taken from a natural source was proposed. This led to the creation of the decimal-based metric system in 1795, establishing a set of standards for other types of measurements. Several other countries adopted the metric system between 1795 and 1875; to ensure conformity between the countries, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was established by the Metre Convention. This has evolved into the International System of Units (SI) as a result of a resolution at the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in 1960. Metrology is divided into three basic overlapping activities: * The definition of units of measurement * The realisation of these units of measurement in practice * Traceability—linking measurements made in practice to the reference standards These overlapping activities are used in varying degrees by the three basic sub-fields of metrology: * Scientific or fundamental metrology, concerned with the establishment of units of measurement * Applied, technical or industrial metrology—the application of measurement to manufacturing and other processes in society * Legal metrology, covering the regulation and statutory requirements for measuring instruments and methods of measurement In each country, a national measurement system (NMS) exists as a network of laboratories, calibration facilities and accreditation bodies which implement and maintain its metrology infrastructure. The NMS affects how measurements are made in a country and their recognition by the international community, which has a wide-ranging impact in its society (including economics, energy, environment, health, manufacturing, industry and consumer confidence). The effects of metrology on trade and economy are some of the easiest-observed societal impacts. To facilitate fair trade, there must be an agreed-upon system of measurement.

    計量学(けいりょうがく、英: metrology)とは、計量・測定・計測・度量衡を研究対象とする学術分野。『国際計量用語集』(JCGM 200:2008) によると、「計量学は測定対象の分野や測定の不確かさを問わず、測定という行為のあらゆる理論的および実践的観点を含む」とされる。日本語では測定学(そくていがく)、計測学(けいそくがく)、度量衡学(どりょうこうがく)とも呼ばれる。。 本項では、学術の一分野として、また測定に係る営みとしての計量学について解説する。行為としての測定そのものに関する詳細な解説は「測定」の項目を参照のこと。