Carbon dioxide

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  • carbon dioxide
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  • A colourless gas with a faint tingling smell and taste. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the source of carbon for plants. As carbon dioxide is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers. It is a normal constituent of the atmosphere, relatively innocuous in itself but playing an important role in the greenhouse effect. It is produced during the combustion of fossil fuels when the carbon content of the fuels reacts with the oxygen during combustion. It is also produced when living organisms respire. It is essential for plant nutrition and in the ocean phytoplankton is capable of absorbing and releasing large quantities of the gas.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    RETはの細胞外シグナル伝達分子を結合する受容体型チロシンキナーゼであり、ヒトではRET遺伝子にコードされる。RET遺伝子の機能喪失型変異はヒルシュスプルング病の発症と関係しており、機能獲得型変異は、多発性内分泌腺腫症2A型と2B型を含む、さまざまなタイプのがんの発症と関係している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    trans-グルタコン酸 (trans-glutaconic acid) は、化学式がHO2CCH=CHCH2CO2Hの有機化合物である。無色の固体で、対応する飽和化合物はグルタル酸である。エステルのときはグルタコナートと呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    meta-クレゾール、または3-メチルフェノールは、化学式がCH3C6H4(OH)で表される有機化合物。無色透明で粘性のある液体で、様々な化合物の原料となる。フェノールの誘導体であり、異性体にとがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カプリル酸(カプリルさん、caprylic acid)は、炭素数8の直鎖状脂肪酸で、IUPAC系統名はオクタン酸 (octanoic acid) である。天然にはココナッツや母乳などに含まれる。常温常圧においては、弱い不快な腐敗臭を持つ油状の液体である。なお、水にはほとんど溶けない。 工業的には香料として用いられるエステルの合成や染料の製造に利用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トランスサイレチンまたはトランスチレチン(英: transthyretin、略称: TTR)は、甲状腺ホルモンサイロキシン(T4)とレチノールを肝臓へ運搬する、血清または脳脊髄液中の運搬体タンパク質である。トランスサイレチンという名称は、その機能に由来する(transports thyroxine and retinol)。トランスサイレチンは肝臓から血中へ分泌され、脈絡叢から脳脊髄液へ分泌される。 TTRは以前はプレアルブミン(prealbumin、thyroxine-binding prealbumin、略称: TBPA)と呼ばれていた。これはTTRが電気泳動ゲル中でアルブミンよりも速く泳動されるためである。 トランスサイレチンは、に位置するTTR遺伝子によってコードされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シクロペンタノール(cyclopentanol)は環状アルコールの一つ。 脱水させるとシクロペンテンと水を生じる。 消防法に定める第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ルテオリン(Luteolin)は、フラボンの1つである。他のフラボノイドと同様に、黄色の結晶状になる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    タクロリムス (tacrolimus) は、23員環マクロライド・マクロラクタム構造を持つ免疫抑制剤の一種で、臓器移植または骨髄移植を行った患者の拒絶反応を抑制する薬剤である。またアトピー性皮膚炎に対する塗布剤、関節リウマチ治療薬としても用いられる。いずれもハイリスク薬である。類似の薬剤としてはシクロスポリン等が知られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    プレグナンX受容体(プレグナンXじゅようたい、英: pregnane X receptor、略称: PXR)は、ヒトではNR1I2遺伝子によってコードされるタンパク質である。SXR(steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor)、NR1I2(nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2)の名称でも知られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エイコサン(Icosane、別名イコサン、アイコサン 英:Eicosane)は、炭素数が20のアルカン(飽和炭化水素)に分類される有機化合物である。n-エイコサンの場合、構造式は CH3(CH2)18CH3。異性体の数は366319。n-エイコサンは、ジデシルとも呼ばれる。 エイコサンは、引火点が高くて燃料には不適であり、石油化学工業的にはほとんど用途がない。なお引火点は186.5℃である。n-エイコサンは蝋燭に含まれる成分で最も炭素鎖の短い化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ジヒドロ葉酸レダクターゼ(dihydrofolate reductase、DHFR)は、NADPHを電子供与体としてジヒドロ葉酸をテトラヒドロ葉酸に還元する酵素である。ヒトではDHFR遺伝子にコードされている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ダサチニブ(dasatinib)は、BCR-ABLをはじめとした複数のチロシンキナーゼを標的とした、分子標的治療薬であるチロシンキナーゼ阻害薬(Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor:TKI)としてブリストル・マイヤーズ スクイブ社により開発された抗悪性腫瘍剤(抗がん剤)である。投与は水和物で行われる。慢性骨髄性白血病 (CML)、および既存の治療に抵抗性または不耐容のフィラデルフィア染色体陽性急性リンパ性白血病 (Ph+ALL) の治療に用いられる。製造・販売元はブリストル・マイヤーズで、大塚製薬がプロモーション提携している。商品名はスプリセル (Sprycel) 。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ジチオエリトリトール (dithioerythritol, DTE) とは、四炭糖エリトロースの硫黄誘導体のひとつ。エリトリトールの両端のヒドロキシ基がチオール基に変わったもので、メソ体となっている。ジチオトレイトール (DTT) のエピマーにあたる。分子式は C4H10O2S2。 DTT と同様に、DTE は優れた還元剤である。DTE の標準還元電位は DTT ほど負側ではない、すなわち還元力は DTT に及ばない。これはおそらく酸化を受けて生じる環状のジスルフィドについて、ヒドロキシ基どうしに立体反発があるためと考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    パロモマイシン(Paromomycin)はアメーバ赤痢、ジアルジア症、リーシュマニア症、サナダムシ感染症などいくつかの寄生虫感染症の治療に用いられる剤である。妊娠中のアメーバ赤痢やジアルジア症の一次治療に使用される。それ以外の場合は一般的に二次治療に用いられる。投与法は経口、皮膚への塗布、筋肉注射である。 経口薬による主な副作用は、食欲不振、嘔吐、腹痛、下痢などがあげられる。塗布薬による副作用は、ゆみ、赤み、水ぶくれなどがあげられる。注射薬による副作用は、発熱、肝臓病、難聴があげられる。授乳中のヒトへの投与は安全とされる。パロモマイシンはアミノグリコシド系抗生物質に属する薬剤であり、細菌のタンパク質合成を阻止することにより微生物を死滅する。 パロモマイシンは1950年代にから発見され、1960年に医薬品として使われるようになった。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されており、最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。パロモマイシンは後発医薬品として入手できる。 2007年時点のインドでの注射型による一貫の治療にかかる費用は£4.19~£8.38ポンドである。2015年時点の米国での一般的な一貫の治療にかかる費用は$200米ドルである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセトアミド (acetamide) とは有機化合物の一種で、酢酸とアンモニアが脱水縮合した構造を持つアミドである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リファブチン(Rifabutin, Rfb)は結核の治療に用いられる 抗生物質であり、マイコバクテリウム・アビウム・コンプレックス(Mycobacterium avium complex、MAC)症の予防と治療にも用いられる。一般的にリファンピシンが許容できないを服用しているHIV/エイズ患者に用いられる。活性結核にはその他の抗酸菌症治療薬と共に使用される。多剤耐性結核に曝露した場合の潜在的結核に対しては単剤で使用される。 主な副作用は腹痛、吐き気、発疹、頭痛、好中球減少症である。その他の副作用は筋肉痛やぶどう膜炎である。妊娠中の患者への悪影響は報告されていないものの調査もされていない。リファブチンは(Rifamycin)に属する医薬品である。作用機序は不明確である。 リファブチンは1992年にアメリカで医薬品として承認された。日本では2008年7月に承認された。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されている最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。開発途上国での卸値は1か月分で約$30米ドルである。米国での1か月の治療のかかる薬の値段は$200米ドル以上である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセトヒドロキサム酸(アセトヒドロキサムさん、またはN-ヒドロキシアセトアミド、英: Acetohydroxamic acid、AHAとも略記される)は、細菌や植物のウレアーゼに対する強力かつ不可逆的な酵素阻害剤であり、尿路感染症の治療に用いられる。分子構造は尿素に類似するが、ウレアーゼによる加水分解を受けない。物理的な性質として、融点は92℃。常温では白色ないしわずかに薄い黄色の結晶又は粉末である。 米国では1983年に「ストルバイト結石」の予防薬として希少疾病医薬品に指定された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ラウリン酸(ラウリンさん、英語: lauric acid)は炭素数12の飽和脂肪酸である。IUPAC系統名は ドデカン酸 (dodecanoic acid) である。ココナッツオイルやヤシ油に含まれる主な酸で、抗菌活性を持つと考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シプロフロキサシン (英語: ciprofloxacin、略称:CPFX) とは、ニューキノロン系の抗生物質のひとつ。バイエルよりシプロキサン、シプロの商品名で販売されているほか、後発医薬品も存在する。フッ素を持ち、フルオロキノロン薬に分類される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アルデヒドデヒドロゲナーゼ2 (2型アルデヒド脱水素酵素、アルデヒド脱水素酵素2、英語: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2; ALDH2)は上に存在する遺伝子、またその遺伝子にコードされているタンパク質である。ヒトにおいて19遺伝子存在するアルデヒドデヒドロゲナーゼ遺伝子の1つであり、コードしているALDH2タンパク質はヒトの肝臓を中心に様々な組織、細胞においてエタノールの代謝産物であるアセトアルデヒドを含む反応性アルデヒドの酸化および無毒化に重要な働きをしている酵素である。 ALDH2遺伝子の主な遺伝子多型として正常型のALDH2*1と不活性型のALDH2*2が知られている。モンゴロイド以外の人種のほとんどは正常型アリルのみを持つが、モンゴロイドの約50%は変異型アリルを持っていることが知られており、不活性型ALDH2*2がいわゆる「お酒に弱い体質」の原因の1つとされている。また、毒性化学物質の解毒能に大きく関わっていること、基質が日常生活にありふれて存在することからALDH2遺伝子多型は衛生学を含めた医学分野全体において重要な多型であると考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ミフェプリストン(英語: mifepristone、別名:RU-486)は、妊娠中に中絶を引き起こすために、通常ミソプロストールと組み合わせて使用される薬である。この薬の組み合わせは、妊娠初期63日では97%有効である。妊娠中期にも効果がある。効果は、使用後2週間で確認する必要がある。経口で摂取する。一般的な副作用には、腹痛、疲労感、膣からの出血などがある。深刻な副作用には、膣からの大量の出血、細菌感染、妊娠が中断しなかった場合の先天性欠損症などがある。 ミフェプリストンは、(プロゲストーゲンの抑制剤)である。抗プロゲストーゲンは、プロゲステロンの効果をブロックし、子宮頸部を開きやすくし、ミソプロストールに晒されたときに子宮の収縮を促進することで機能する仕組みである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    2-イソプロピル-3-メトキシピラジン(英: 2-Isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine)は、化学式C8H12N2Oで表されるピラジンの誘導体の一種である。IPMPとも略記される。2-イソブチル-3-メトキシピラジン同様、嗅覚閾値0.002ppbと非常に強力な匂いを持つ。 消防法に定める第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    4-ニトロアニリン、または p-ニトロアニリン(パラニトロアニリン) は、有機化合物のひとつで、ベンゼンのパラ位の水素がアミノ基とニトロ基が置き換わった構造を持つ。色素や医薬品合成の中間体、酸化防止剤、ガソリンのガム状化防止剤、家禽の医薬品、腐食防止剤としての用途がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセトアセチルCoA(アセトアセチルコエー、アセトアセチルコエンザイムエー)は、メバロン酸経路においてHMG-CoAの前駆物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    2,4,6-トリブロモフェノール(2,4,6-Tribromophenol, TBP)は、フェノールの臭素化誘導体である。殺菌剤、木材保存剤、難燃剤生成の中間体として用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    N-アセチルグルコサミン(N-アセチル-D-グルコサミン、GlcNAc、NAG)は、グルコースの2位ヒドロキシル基がアセチルアミノ基に置換された単糖である。化学的にはグルコサミンの2位アミノ基をアセチル化することで容易に調製できる。いくつかの生化学的機構にとって重要な物質である。 GlcNAcは細菌の細胞壁の生体高分子の一部を構成している。そこではGlcNAcとN-アセチルムラミン酸 (MurNAc) が交互ユニットを形成しており、MurNAcの乳酸残基にテトラペプチドが結合している。この層をなしている構造はペプチドグリカンと呼ばれている。 GlcNAcは、昆虫、甲殻類、線虫など脱皮動物の外被の基質を構成しているキチン質のモノマーでもある。また、GlcNAcは疼痛の経路において非定型的な神経伝達物質として作用するとも考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ガラクトース(galactose)はアルドヘキソースに分類される単糖の一種であり、Galと略記されることがある。乳製品や甜菜、ガム、および粘液で見出される他、ヒトの体内でも合成され各組織で糖脂質や糖タンパク質の一部を形成する。 エネルギーとなる食物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    N-メチル-2-ピロリドン (N-methylpyrrolidone、NMP) はラクタム構造を含む 5員環の構造を持つ有機化合物で、極性溶媒のひとつである。別名は N-メチルピロリドン、N-メチルピロリジン-2-オン、1-メチル-2-ピロリドン、N-メチル-2-ピロリジノン (N-methylpyrrolidinone)、M-Pyrol などである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エリスリトール(Erythritol)とは、化合物および糖アルコール(Sugar Alcohol)の一種である。食品添加物や砂糖の代わりに使われる。トウモロコシを原料に、酵素を用いて発酵させて製造する。化学式は、C4H10O4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH で、立体異性体(Stereoisomer)の一つである。 ショ糖(砂糖の主成分であるスクロース, Sucrose)の60~70%の甘みを持ち、砂糖と違ってカロリーはほとんど無く、血糖値には影響を与えず、虫歯の原因になることも無い。また、インスリン(Insulin)の分泌も刺激しない。 「エリトリトール」とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセトン (acetone) は有機溶媒として広く用いられる有機化合物で、もっとも単純な構造のケトンである。IUPAC命名法では プロパン-2-オン (propan-2-one) あるいは単にプロパノン。両親媒性の無色の液体で、水、アルコール類、クロロホルム、エーテル類、ほとんどの油脂をよく溶かす。蒸気圧が20 ℃において24.7 kPaと高いことから、常温で高い揮発性を有し、強い引火性がある。ジメチルケトンとも表記される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    スペルミン (spermine) は、化学式 C10H26N4 で表されるポリアミンの一種。IUPAC命名法では N,N'-ビス(3-アミノプロピル)ブタン-1,4-ジアミン。融点 26–30 ℃、沸点 150 ℃ (5 mmHg) の固体。 1678年、アントニ・ファン・レーウェンフックにより精液中からリン酸塩として発見され、1888年、アルベルト・ラーデンブルクにより精液 (sperm) から命名された。 体内ではオルニチンなどから生合成されると考えられている。細胞の新陳代謝に関わるDNAと相互作用し、その遺伝情報の読み出しなどに密接に関わる重要な化合物でもある。DNAのらせん構造を安定化させる作用が有ると考えられており、核タンパク質の精製時などにも利用される。 また、スペルミンは精液に多く含まれ、その臭いの元となる化合物でもあるが、実際には精液の臭いはスペルミンの分解物によるものと考えられている。同様の化合物にはスペルミジンがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キサンチン (xanthine) はプリン塩基の一種で、ほとんどの体組織や体液に見られる有機化合物である。 キサンチンは生体内でプリン化合物が分解したときに生じ、キサンチンデヒドロゲナーゼ(キサンチンオキシダーゼ)の作用により尿酸へと変えられる。遺伝子疾患の一種のでは、このキサンチンオキシダーゼが不足してキサンチンから尿酸への変換が滞ってしまう。 有機合成では、グアニンの希硫酸溶液に亜硝酸ナトリウムを作用させるとキサンチンが得られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アトルバスタチン(Atorvastatin)は、リピトール(Lipitor)などの商品名で販売されている高リスクの心血管疾患の予防と異常な脂質レベルの治療に用いられるスタチン薬である。スタチンは、心血管疾患の予防の一次治療に用いられる医薬品である。投与法は経口である。 一般的な副作用には、関節痛、下痢、胸やけ、吐き気、筋肉痛などがあげられる。重度の副作用には、横紋筋融解症、肝臓障害、糖尿病などがあげられる。妊娠中の人への投与により胎児に害を及ぼす可能性がある。 すべてのスタチンと同様に、アトルバスタチンの作用機序は、肝臓でのコレステロールの生成するために働く酵素であるHMG-CoAレダクターゼを阻害することによって効果がある。 アトルバスタチンは1986年に特許認可され、1996年に米国で医薬品として承認された。日本では2000年3月に承認された。後発医薬品として入手でき、比較的に低価格で購入できる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    クリンダマイシンは、リンコマイシン系の抗生物質。 商品名としては先発品にダラシン、ダラシンTゲル、ミドシンなどがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フルフェナム酸(Flufenamic acid)とは、フェナム酸系の非ステロイド性抗炎症薬の1種であり、2-{(3-トリフルオロメチルフェニル)-アミノ}-安息香酸のことである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    コプロポルフィリノーゲンIII (coproporphyrinogen III) は、ポルフィリン代謝において、ウロポルフィリノーゲンIIIからウロポルフィリノーゲンデカルボキシラーゼによって合成され、コプロポルフィリノーゲンオキシダーゼによってプロトポルフィリノーゲンIXに変換される物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    デオキシアデノシン一リン酸(デオキシアデノシンいちリンさん、Deoxyadenosine monophosphate、dAMP)はアデノシン三リン酸の誘導体で、2'位のヒドロキシ基と2つのリン酸基が除かれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    DPP-4(Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4、EC3.4.14.5)とは腸管ホルモンであるインクレチンの不活化を行う酵素(セリンプロテアーゼ)であり、細胞膜上をはじめ可溶性タンパク質として血液中にも存在している。インクレチンは食後の血糖値上昇に伴い腸上皮細胞から分泌され、中でもから分泌されるGIPとから分泌されるGLP-1が注目されている。これらは膵臓β細胞表面の受容体に結合してインスリン分泌促進およびグルカゴンの分泌抑制により血糖値降下作用を示す。DPP-4はT細胞などの免疫系細胞表面にもCD26として発現して分化マーカーとされている。アデノシンデアミナーゼ(ADA)と結合して細胞内情報伝達を調節する働きも有しているため、アデノシンデアミナーゼ結合タンパク質(ADABP)とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カテコール (catechol) は、フェノール類の一種で、ベンゼン環上のオルト位に 2個のヒドロキシ基を有する有機化合物。ポリフェノールに含まれる構造として知られる。ピロカテコール (pyrocatechol) とも呼ばれる。位置異性体にレゾルシノール、ヒドロキノンがある。日本法の劇物。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ウラン(独: Uran [uˈraːn], 新ラテン語: uranium 英語: [jʊˈreɪniəm])とは、原子番号92の元素。元素記号は U。ウラニウムともいう。アクチノイドに属する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    顆粒球マクロファージコロニー刺激因子(granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor;GM-CSF)またはコロニー刺激因子2(colony stimulating factor 2;CSF2)は、マクロファージ、T細胞、肥満細胞、ナチュラルキラー細胞、内皮細胞、線維芽細胞などから分泌される単量体の糖タンパク質であり、サイトカインとして機能する。 好中球の増殖と成熟を特異的に促進する顆粒球コロニー刺激因子とは異なり、GM-CSFはより多くの種類の細胞に作用する。 この様に主に細胞性免疫の主役である白血球(顆粒球、単球)の分化誘導作用をもつ為、免疫賦活や骨髄刺激に用いられる事もある。Th細胞等が産生している事が知られている。 天然由来GM-CSFの類縁物質医薬品はやと呼ばれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    コルチゾール(Cortisol)は、副腎皮質ホルモンである糖質コルチコイドの一種であり、医薬品としてヒドロコルチゾン (hydrocortisone) とも呼ばれる。炭水化物、脂肪、およびタンパク代謝を制御し、生体にとって必須のホルモンである。3種の糖質コルチコイドの中で最も生体内量が多く、糖質コルチコイド活性の約95%はこれによる。ストレスによっても分泌が亢進される。分泌される量によっては、血圧や血糖レベルを高め、免疫機能の低下や不妊をもたらす。 日本薬局方医薬品としてはヒドロコルチゾンの名称で収載される、ステロイド系抗炎症薬(SAID)の1つとして臨床使用される。ステロイド系抗炎症薬は炎症反応を強力に抑制し、炎症の全ての過程に作用する。急性炎症、慢性炎症、自己免疫疾患、アレルギー性疾患、ショック、痛風、急性白血病、などの治療に使用される。、クッシング症候群、胃潰瘍などの副作用が現れる場合もある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    18-クラウン-6(18-crown-6)は、分子式 [C2H4O]6、IUPAC名 1,4,7,10,13,16-ヘキサオキサシクロオクタデカンで表される有機化合物である。本化合物はクラウンエーテルの一種である。クラウンエーテル類は、いくつかの金属カチオンを中心の空洞に包接する。18-クラウン-6は特にカリウムカチオンに対して親和性を示す。クラウンエーテル類の開発の功績により、チャールズ・ペダーセンは1987年のノーベル化学賞を受賞した。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フーリンはタンパク質であり、ヒトではFURIN遺伝子にコードされている。その遺伝子は、として知られているがん遺伝子の上流にあるので、FUR(FES Upstream Region)と呼ばれ、そのためそのタンパク質はフーリン(furin)と名付けられた。フーリンはPACE(Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme)としても知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グルコキナーゼ(英: glucokinase、EC 2.7.1.2)は、グルコースからグルコース-6-リン酸へのリン酸化を促進する酵素である。ヒトや他の脊椎動物の大部分では、グルコキナーゼは肝臓と膵臓の細胞で発現している。各器官においてグルコースのセンサーとして機能することで炭水化物の代謝調節に重要な役割を果たし、食事後や絶食時などのグルコースレベルの上昇や低下に応答して代謝や細胞機能の変化を開始させる。この酵素の遺伝子の変異は、一般的でない病態の糖尿病や低血糖症を引き起こす。 グルコキナーゼはヘキソキナーゼのアイソザイムであり、他の3つのヘキソキナーゼと相同性を示す。ヘキソキナーゼはグルコースからグルコース-6-リン酸へのリン酸化を媒介し、これはグリコーゲン合成と解糖系の双方の第一段階である。グルコキナーゼのグルコースに対する親和性は他のヘキソキナーゼよりも低い。他の3つのヘキソキナーゼはほとんどの組織や器官で解糖系やグリコーゲン合成に重要な役割を果たすのに対し、グルコキナーゼの活性はいくつかの細胞種に限られている。この低い親和性のため、生理的条件下におけるグルコキナーゼの活性はグルコース濃度によって大きく変動する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    副腎皮質刺激ホルモン放出ホルモン(ふくじんひしつしげき—ほうしゅつ—、corticotropin-releasing hormone, CRH)とは、ヒトのストレス反応に関するペプチドホルモンの一つ。Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, 副腎皮質刺激ホルモン放出因子)と呼ばれることもある。主な機能は、副腎皮質刺激ホルモン (ACTH) の分泌を促進させることである。ストレスに反応して視床下部(PVN)から分泌され、視床下部の底部にある正中隆起の血管網に放出され、下垂体門脈を通って下垂体前葉に到達する。 下垂体が視床下部によって調節されている可能性は、1950年代に Geoffrey W. Harris によって提唱されていた。視床下部から分離され、培養状態に置かれた前葉細胞は副腎皮質刺激能が低下するが、これは視床下部抽出物により回復する。ロジェ・ギルマンは、甲状腺刺激ホルモン放出ホルモンの抽出の前に、最初この因子の抽出を試みたが、1955年から7年もかけて数十万頭にも及ぶ家畜の脳を用いても果たせなかった。1981年になってWylie W. Valeらがヒツジの視床下部から単離して構造を決定した。ヒトおよびラットのCRHはアミノ酸配列が同じで、いずれも41アミノ酸残基から成り、C末端はアミド構造であることが知られている。 CRHの産生にはアルツハイマー病や大うつ病との関連が観察されており、に起因する視床下部コルチコトロピン欠損症は、低血糖症など複数の致命的な代謝的影響を及ぼしうる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    スルファニルアミド(SulfanilamideまたはSulphanilamide)は、スルホンアミド系抗生物質の1つである。化学的には、パラ位にスルホンアミド基を有するアニリン誘導体である。粉末のスルファニルアミドは、第二次世界大戦中に連合国側で感染予防に用いられ、それ以前と比較して劇的に死亡率を低下させた。現代では戦場では他の抗生物質に取って代わられているが、膣真菌感染症には今でも用いられる。 “スルファニルアミド”という語は、分子中に 4-アミノベンゼンスルホンアミド 構造を有することを表現するために今でも用いられている。例) * フロセミド ― ループ利尿薬の1つ。 * スルファジアジン ― 抗生物質の1つ。 * スルファメトキサゾール ― 抗生物質の1つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キニジン(英: Quinidine)は、キナ(Cinchona )属の樹皮から産生されるアルカロイドであり、抗不整脈薬の一つである。抗不整脈薬の分類であるVaughan Williams分類ではIa群であり、ナトリウムイオンチャネルを抑制することにより活動電位の最大立ち上がり速度を低下させ、伝導速度を遅らせる作用を持つ。また、カリウムイオンチャネル抑制作用、カルシウムイオンチャネル遮断作用も持つ。キニーネの鏡像異性体(エナンチオマー)に相当する。キニーネが左旋性、キニジンが右旋性である。 ヒト以外では、小動物やウマの心室性不整脈、急性心房細動などの治療に用いられる。ネコでは経口投与は原則として行わない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カテプシンK(略称CTSK)は 、CTSK遺伝子によってエンコードされているシステインプロテアーゼ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ウアバイン(英: ouabain)は、強心配糖体のひとつ。ソマリ族が毒矢の毒の原料として用いていたキョウチクトウ科の(Strophanthus)の種子に含まれる。名称はソマリ語で「矢毒」を意味する"waabaayo"のフランス語表記"ouabaïo"による。別名は G-ストロファンチン(g-strophanthin)、CAS登録番号 は [630-60-4]。 ウアバインのアグリコン(非糖部)はウアバゲニン(ouabagenin、またはg-straphanthidin)。 細胞膜に存在するNa+/K+-ATPアーゼを阻害することにより心筋細胞内Ca2+濃度を上昇させ、収縮力を増大させる。 医学実験においてNa+/K+-ATPアーゼのブロックに用いるほか、ドイツとフランスでは強心剤として用いる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ホスカルネット(Foscarnet)とは、抗ウイルス薬の一つ。ギ酸にリン酸が置換した構造を持つ。サイトメガロウイルス(CMV)感染症の治療に用いられる。商品名はホスカビル、ノーベルファーマ製造販売。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    メラトニン(英: Melatonin)は、動物、植物、微生物に存在する内因性ホルモンであり、また化学的にN-アセチル-5-メトキシトリプタミン (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) として知られる。日本では、これまで公に小児に対して使用できる睡眠薬がなかったが、2020年に商品名メラトベルで処方箋医薬品として「小児期の神経発達症に伴う入眠困難の改善」の適応で初めて承認された。動物では、メラトニンの血中濃度は1日の周期で変化しており、それぞれの生物学的な機能における概日リズムによる同調を行っている。メラトニンによる多くの生物学的な効果は、の活性を通して生成され、他にも広範囲にわたる強力な抗酸化物質としての役割によって、特に核DNAやミトコンドリアDNAを保護する。 メラトニンはアメリカ食品医薬品局(FDA)によってサプリメントに分類されており、医薬品ではない。メラトニンの徐放製剤は、2007年に欧州医薬品庁によって55歳以上の人々に対して処方箋医薬品としてCircadinが承認されたが、小さな効果しか示していない。メラトニン徐放製剤が症状を呈するオーストラリアでは2009年に承認された。ヒトが長期間にわたり外部から補給することによる完全な影響はまだ判明していない。また、2018年に欧州医薬品庁によって小児用メラトニン徐放製剤Slenytoが「小児及び青年期の自閉スペクトラム症及びスミス・マギネス症候群を伴う不眠症」の適応で承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フェブキソスタット(Febuxostat、開発コードTMX-67)は、非プリン型のキサンチンオキシダーゼ阻害薬である。痛風、高尿酸血症、またはがん化学療法に伴う高尿酸血症の治療薬として帝人ファーマが開発した。欧州、米国などに続いて、日本でもフェブリクとして2011年1月に承認された。尿酸産生を抑制し、痛風発作を予防する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ピロロキノリンキノン (Pyrroloquinoline quinone, PQQ) は、1964年にJ.G. Haugeらにより、細菌のに含まれるニコチンアミドとフラビンに次ぐ3番目のとして見出された。 一方、AnthonyとZatmanも、アルコール脱水素酵素に未知の酸化還元補酵素があることを見出し、これをMetoxatinと名づけた。 1979年に、Salisburyら、およびDuineらのグループが、メチロトローフ(メタノール資化菌)のからこの補酵素を抽出し、その分子構造を同定した。Adachiらのグループは、酢酸菌の脱水素酵素にもPQQが含まれることを見出した。これらのPQQを含む酵素は、キノプロテインと呼ばれ、その一つであるグルコース脱水素酵素は、グルコースセンサーに用いられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インターロイキン-18(英: interleukin-18、略称: IL-18)は、ヒトではIL18遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。インターフェロンγ誘導因子(interferon-gamma inducing factor)とも呼ばれる。造血系細胞と非造血系細胞を含む多くの細胞種が、IL-18産生能力を持つ。IL-18は1989年にマウス脾臓細胞において、インターフェロンγ(IFN-γ)の産生を誘導する因子として最初に記載された。もともと、IL-18は肝臓に位置するマクロファージであるクッパー細胞で産生されることが知られていたが、細胞、ケラチノサイト、内皮細胞などの非造血系細胞でも恒常的に発現している。IL-18は自然免疫と獲得免疫の双方を調節し、その調節異常は自己免疫疾患や炎症疾患を引き起こす場合がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アジピン酸(アジピンさん、adipic acid)は、ジカルボン酸の一種。IUPAC命名法ではヘキサン二酸 (hexanedioic acid) と表される無臭の無色結晶性粉末である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シトラコン酸(シトラコンさん、citraconic acid)は、クエン酸の加熱分解で得られるカルボン酸の1種である。メサコン酸のシス異性体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アスパルテーム(aspartame、アスパルテイム、略称 APM ; 発音 [ˈæspərteɪm] または [əˈspɑːrteɪm])とは、人工甘味料の1つである。ヒトにはスクロースの100~200倍の甘味に感じられる。これに対して、アスパルテームの生理的熱量は、スクロースとほぼ同じ、約4 (kcal/g)であり、ノンカロリーではない。CAS登録番号は[22839-47-0]。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シクロオキシゲナーゼ2(英: cyclooxygenase-2、略称: COX-2)またはプロスタグランジンエンドペルオキシドシンターゼ2(英: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2、略称: PTGS2)は、ヒトではPTGS2遺伝子にコードされる酵素である。COX-2はヒトに2種類存在するシクロオキシゲナーゼのうちの1つである。COX-2はアラキドン酸からへの変換に関与しており、炎症時に発現する。プロスタグランジンH2はプロスタサイクリンの重要な前駆体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    メロペネム(meropenem)は、さまざまな細菌感染症の治療に使用される広域抗生物質である。これらの一部には、髄膜炎 , 腹腔内感染, 肺炎, 敗血症、および炭疽菌 感染が含まれる。 この薬剤は静脈への注射によって投与される。製品名はメロペン(大日本住友製薬製造販売)。 一般的な副作用には、吐き気、下痢、便秘、頭痛、発疹、注射部位の痛みなどがある。重篤な副作用には、クロストリジウムディフィシル感染 , 痙攣, アナフィラキシーなどのアレルギー反応が含まれる。他のにアレルギーがある人は、メロペネムにアレルギーがある可能性が高くなる。妊娠中の使用は安全と思われる。カルバペネム系の薬である。メロペネムは通常、細胞壁を作る能力をブロックすることにより、細菌の死をもたらす。β-ラクタマーゼ産生菌による分解に対してより耐性がある。 メロペネムは1983年に特許を取得した。 1996年に米国で医療用途として承認された。 世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに載っている。これは健康システムに必要な最も効果的で安全な医薬品である。 発展途上国の卸売コストは、2015年時点で1グラムのバイアルあたり3.44〜20.58 USDである。 英国では、この金額により2015年にNHSの費用は約16ポンドになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    プテロスチルベン(Pterostilbene、/[ˌtɛrəˈstɪlbiːn]/、トランス-3,5-ジメトキシ-4-ヒドロキシスチルベン)は、スチルベノイドの1つでレスベラトロールの類縁体である。植物においては、ファイトアレキシンとして自己防衛のため分泌される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    イソキノリン (isoquinoline) は、ベンゼン環とピリジン環が縮合した構造を持つ複素環式芳香族化合物の一種である。キノリンの構造異性体にあたり、その構造を、2-アザナフタレン、2-ベンズアジン と表すこともできる。ピリジン環の 3,4位の結合部位にベンゼン環が縮合していることから ベンゾ[c]ピリジン とも表される。無色で吸湿性の油状物質で、強い臭いを呈する。広義では、イソキノリン骨格を持つ各種誘導体の化合物群を示す。イソキノリンは天然に存在するパパベリンやモルヒネなどのアルカロイドに含まれる。生体内で、それらのイソキノリン環はチロシンから誘導されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グルコース-6-リン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ,G6PD)は、NADPH濃度を維持することにより細胞へ還元エネルギーを供給するペントースリン酸経路に関与する細胞質酵素の一つ。このNADPHは細胞内の主要な抗酸化成分であるグルタチオンの濃度を維持し、細胞を酸化的ダメージから保護している。また、NADPHは組織では肝臓や乳腺、脂肪組織および副腎における、脂肪酸やイソプレノイドの生合成にも使われている。この酵素の遺伝的欠損による非免疫性溶血性貧血(グルコース6リン酸脱水素酵素欠損症)はヒトにおいて顕著である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エタノールアミン(英語: ethanolamine)、2-アミノエタノール(2-aminoethanol)ないしはモノエタノールアミン(monoethanolamine, 略:MEA)は、一級アミン(分子構造上ではアミノ基)と一級アルコール(同様にヒドロキシ基)の両方を有する有機化合物である。他のアミン同様にモノエタノールアミンも弱い塩基として作用する。エタノールアミンは毒性、可燃性、腐食性を持つ無色、粘調な弱いアンモニア臭がする液体である。エタノールアミンの屈折率は1.4539である。消防法に定める第4類危険物 第3石油類に該当する。 一般にエタノールアミンはジエタノールアミン(DEA)やトリエタノールアミン(TEA)と区別する場合は、モノエタノールアミンないしはMEAと呼ばれる。モノエタノールアミンは酸化エチレンとアンモニアを反応させて製造される。さらに酸化エチレンが反応するとDEAやTEAが得られる。エタノールアミンはリン脂質の二番目に豊富な頭部構造であり、それらは生体膜中で見いだされる。 エタノールアミンは抗ヒスタミン薬の共通構造において、ジフェニルメタンに連結しているエチルアミン部分として見いだされる。例えばジフェンヒドラミン(ドリエル)、(Percogesic)、ドキシラミン(Unisom、睡眠導入剤)等の部分構造である。これらは第一世代の抗ヒスタミン薬であり、今日でもアレルギー疾患に有効である。しかし、スイッチOTCや処方医薬品のロラタジン (クラリチン)やフェキソフェナジン(アレグラ)など新しい第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬も登場している。第一世代は、エタノールアミンにより血液脳関門を通過するので、バルビツール酸系を凌駕する鎮静作用を持つ(新しい抗ヒスタミン薬はそうではない)。この理由のため、エタノールアミン構造を持つ抗ヒスタミン薬の強い眠気の作用を避けることができる第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬がしばしば処方される。逆に、この鎮静作用を持つため第一世代の抗ヒスタミン薬は抗アレルギー薬として以外にも、睡眠導入剤として薬局薬店で販売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    レニウム(英: rhenium)は原子番号75の元素。元素記号は Re。マンガン族元素の一つで、銀白色の金属。遷移金属(第3遷移金属)で、レアメタルの一種。地殻中においても、宇宙空間中においても最も希少な金属である。性質は一つ上のテクネチウムに酷似している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ウリジン (Uridine) は、ピリミジンヌクレオシドの1つでウラシルがリボース環にβ-N1-グリコシド結合で接続した構造をもつ物質(詳細はヌクレオチドを参照)である。 RNAの構成成分の1つである。一方、ウラシルがデオキシリボース環に接合しているものは、デオキシウリジンである。 吸収極大波長はpH2で262nmであり、希酸で加水分解されにくい性質を持ち、濃酸で加水分解するとウラシルとフルフラールになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセナフトキノン(acenaphthoquinone)は、アセナフテンのキノン誘導体である。水には溶けず、アルコールには溶ける。染料、薬品、殺虫剤の製造における合成中間体として使われる。刺激性がある。発ガン性についてはまだ十分な調査がなされていない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ピネン(pinene)は、化学式がC10H16で表される有機化合物で、モノテルペンの1種。名称はマツ (pine) に由来し、その名の通り松脂や松精油の主成分であるほか、多くの針葉樹に含まれ特有の香りのもととなる。香料や医薬品の原料となる。 ピネンは六員環と四員環からなる炭化水素で、二重結合の位置が異なるα-ピネンとβ-ピネンの2つの構造異性体が存在する。さらにそれぞれが2種の鏡像異性体をもつことから、ピネンには合計4種の異性体が存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ミノキシジル(Minoxidil)とは血管拡張薬として開発された成分。後に発毛効果があるとされ発毛剤に転用され、日本以外ではRogaine(ロゲイン)の商品名で売られている。 日本では一般用医薬品として各社から市販されている。優れた発毛効果をもたらすことから「飲む育毛剤」とも呼ばれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ビシン (Bicine) は、緩衝剤として使われる有機化合物である。 グッドバッファーのひとつであり、20℃での pKa は 8.35 である。グリシンとエチレンオキシドを反応させ、生じたラクトンを加水分解することによって得られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リボース-5-リン酸(リボース-5-リンさん、英: Ribose 5-phosphate, R5P)は、ペントースリン酸経路で作られる中間体の一つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アスパラギン(英: asparagine)は、アミノ酸のひとつで、2-アミノ-3-カルバモイルプロピオン酸のこと。略号は N あるいは Asn。アスパラガスからはじめて単離されたことによりこの名がついた。 中性極性側鎖アミノ酸に分類される。蛋白質構成アミノ酸のひとつで、非必須アミノ酸。グリコーゲン生産性を持つ。コドンはAAUまたはAACである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    イミノクタジン(英: iminoctadine)は、グアニジン系殺菌剤の一種である。アルベシル酸塩及び酢酸塩の製剤が農薬として使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    過酢酸(かさくさん、peracetic acid)は、過酸、過カルボン酸のひとつ。PAA と略される。鼻を突く酢酸臭がある液体で、水に易溶。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    2,2,2-トリフルオロエタノール(英: 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol)は化学式CF3CH2OH で表される有機化合物である。TFEと略されることがある。水に可溶の無色透明な液体であり、エタノールと類似した臭気を有する。が電子求引性であるため、エタノールと比較すると酸性度が強い。このためTHFやピリジンといった複素環式化合物と、水素結合による安定な錯体を形成する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ノルエチステロン(norethisterone)またはノルエチンドロン(norethindrone)は商標名のアイゲスチン(Aygestin)やプリモルトN(Primolu N)などで販売されており、経口避妊薬や閉経期のホルモン療法などの婦人科の治療に用いられる薬剤である。低用量と高容量の製剤があり、それらは単体またとの混合剤がある。投与法は経口投与である。 ノルエチステロンの副作用には生理不順、頭痛、吐き気、乳房の痛み、気分の変化、ニキビ、発毛の増進などがあげられる。ノルエチステロンはプロゲスチンまたはジェスタージェン有機化合物であり、プロゲステロン受容体のアゴニストであり、プロゲステロンのようにプロゲストーゲンを生物学的標的とする。若干のアンドロゲンとエストロゲンの作用があるが、ほとんどは多用量の場合であり、その他のホルモン作用はない。 ノルエチステロンがカール・ジェラッシらによって発見されたのは1951年であり、最初に開発されたプロゲスチンの1つである。最初に単体で医薬品として用いられたのは1957年であり、エストロゲンと混合の経口避妊薬として使われ始めたのは1963年である。しばしば第一世代プロゲスチンと呼ばれる。デソゲストレルと同様にプロゲストーゲンのみの経口避妊薬として唯一広く使われるプロゲスチンの避妊薬である。 ノルエチステロンは世界中で幅広く販売されている。後発医薬品として入手できる。 ノルエチステロンに加えて数種類のプロドラッグがあり、(norethisterone acetate, NETA)や(norethisterone enanthate, NETE)などがあり、似たような用途のために販売されている。NETAはノルエチステロンと同様に投与法は経口であるが、NETEの投与法は筋肉注射である。多数あるノルエチステロンの誘導体ののかでもレボノルゲストレルとデソゲストレルが開発され販売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    メタノール (methanol) とは、有機溶媒などとして用いられるアルコールの一種である。別名として、メチルアルコール (methyl alcohol)、木精 (wood spirit)、カルビノール (carbinol)、メチールとも呼ばれる。 一連のアルコールの中で、最も単純な分子構造を持つ。ホルマリンの原料、アルコールランプなどの燃料として広く使われる。燃料電池の水素の供給源としても注目されている。エタノールと違い、人体に有毒な化学物質で、代謝によりギ酸(蟻酸)を大量に生成し、失明や代謝性アシドーシスに至るため飲用不可である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ピセオール(Piceol)は、オウシュウトウヒ(Picea abies)の針葉や菌根に見られるフェノール化合物である。ピセインは、ピセオールのグルコシドである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    コハク酸(琥珀酸、コハクさん、succinic acid)は、構造式 HOOC–(CH2)2–COOH で表されるカルボン酸の一種。はじめコハクの乾留により見つかったためにこの名がついた。英名のsuccinic acidはラテン語のsuccinum(コハク)に由来する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インデン (indene) は、分子式がC9H8と表される二環性の炭化水素。可燃性。ベンゼンがシクロペンタジエン環と縮合した構造を持つ。純粋なインデンは無色だが、保管中に起こる重合や酸化により淡黄色を呈する。主な工業的用途として、熱可塑性を持つの原料となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グルタチオンジスルフィド(glutathione disulfide、GSSG)は、2分子のグルタチオンから誘導されるジスルフィドである。 生細胞において、グルタチオンジスルフィドは補酵素NADPHからの還元等価物によって2分子のグルタチオンへ還元される。この反応はグルタチオンレダクターゼ (EC 1.8.1.7) によって触媒される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    サラゾスルファピリジン(Salazosulfapyridine、SASP)またはスルファサラジン(Sulfasalazine、SSZ)は1950年代に開発された抗リウマチ薬(DMARDs)である。サルファ剤に分類され、メサラジンとがアゾ結合している。日本ではアザルフィジンENとしてあゆみ製薬発売、ファイザー製造販売。 基本的な医療に必要とされるWHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インターロイキン-7(英:Interleukin-7、IL-7)は生理活性物質の一つであり、1988年にB細胞の前駆細胞(pre-B細胞)の増殖を促進する造血性サイトカインとして発見された。IL-7は細胞膜上に存在するIL-7受容体(IL-7R)を介してその生理作用を発現する。1988年にはIL-7、1990年にはIL-7RのcDNAがそれぞれ単離されている。分子量は25kDaである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ボリコナゾール(Voriconazole)はアゾール系(系)抗真菌薬の一種で、重症または難治性の真菌感染症に用いる。日本では2005年に発売された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    LGD-2226は、研究中の選択的アンドロゲン受容体修飾薬(SARM)であり、筋力低下および骨粗鬆症の治療薬として開発されている 。 LGD-2226は、経口で作用する強力なアンドロゲン受容体の選択的アゴニストであり、筋肉および骨組織の両方に同化作用を示すが、テストステロンに比べて前立腺の重量および黄体形成ホルモンレベルへの影響はかなり少ないことが示されている。 選択的アンドロゲン受容体モジュレーターは、アスリートがトレーニングを支援し、肉体的スタミナとフィットネスを向上させるために使用されることもあり、潜在的にはアナボリックステロイドと同様の効果をもたらすが、副作用は大幅に少ない。このため、2008年1月以降、このクラスの医薬品がまだ臨床使用されていないにもかかわらず、世界アンチ・ドーピング機関によってSARMsはすでに禁止されており、LGD-2226を含むすべての既知のSARMsの血液検査が現在開発されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    3-ヒドロキシ安息香酸(3-hydroxybenzoic acid)は、モノヒドロキシ安息香酸の一つ。この物質はシュードモナス属によってから合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フルコナゾールは、深在性真菌症に用いられるの抗真菌薬。日本では、ファイザーがジフルカンとして販売しているほか、いくつかの後発医薬品が販売されている。剤形には、カプセル剤、、がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    1,2-ジクロロエタン(1,2-Dichloroethane, DCE)は、ハロゲン系炭化水素に属する有機化合物である。二塩化エチレン(ethylene dichloride, EDC)とも呼ばれる。主に塩化ビニルモノマー(クロロエチレン)の生産に用いられ、ポリ塩化ビニルの前駆体とされる。また他の有機化合物の合成においても有用な反応中間体として使われたり、溶媒として用いられたりもする。クロロホルム様の臭気を持つ無色の液体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ウベニメクス(INN: Ubenimex)またはベスタチン (bestatin) は、競合的、可逆的プロテアーゼ阻害剤である。アルギニルアミノペプチダーゼ、ロイコトリエンA4ヒドロラーゼ、、、を阻害する。急性骨髄性白血病やリンパ水腫の治療への利用が研究されている。Streptomyces abikoensisが産生する。ウベニメクスは、オキシトシン、バソプレッシン、エンケファリン、その他の様々なペプチドや化合物の酵素分解を阻害することが知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    血管拡張因子刺激リン酸化タンパク質(Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein)とは、ヒトのVASP遺伝子にコードされているタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    分子生物学において、CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) とはいわゆるヘルパーT細胞、単球、マクロファージ、樹状細胞などの免疫系細胞が細胞表面に発現している糖タンパクで細胞表面抗原の1つである。1970年代後半に発見されたこの分子は、1984年にCD4と名付けられるまではleu-3、T4として知られていた。ヒトの場合、CD4遺伝子にコードされている。 CD4陽性T細胞はヒトの免疫系において必要不可欠な白血球である。しばしばCD4細胞、Th細胞、T4細胞と呼ばれることもある(以下CD4細胞)。この細胞の主要な役割はCD8陽性T細胞(いわゆるキラーT細胞、もしくは細胞傷害性T細胞、以下CD8細胞)などの他の免疫系細胞にシグナルを送ることであり、このことからCD4細胞はヘルパー細胞と呼ばれる。CD4細胞がシグナルを送ると、CD8細胞はそれを受けて感染細胞を破壊しこれを殺す。無治療のHIV-1感染患者や臓器移植前の免疫抑制状態のようにCD4細胞が枯渇すると、健常者では発現しない感染症の病原体に感染し易くなる(日和見感染)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    2-ナフトール(en:2-Naphthol)は示性式C10H7OHを有する蛍光性有機化合物である。無色(または黄色)の結晶固体である。ナフタレンの水素を1個、ヒドロキシ基に置換した化合物で、フェノール類に分類される芳香族化合物である。また、そのヒドロキシ基はフェノールよりも反応性が高い。ヒドロキシ基の置換位置が異なる異性体、1-ナフトールが存在する。化学工業ではβ-ナフトールと呼ばれている。異性体はいずれも単純なアルコール、エーテル、クロロホルムに溶けやすい。2-ナフトールは毒物及び劇物取締法に定める劇物に該当する。2-ナフトールは、染料および他の化合物の製造のために広く使用される中間体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    イソフェルラ酸はヒドロキシケイ皮酸の誘導体の一つで、フェルラ酸の異性体である。ケイ皮酸の3位にヒドロキシ基、4位にメトキシ基を持つことから、3-ヒドロキシ-4-メトキシケイ皮酸とも呼ばれる。フェルラ酸は、3位と4位の配置が本物質とは逆になる。本物質はヘスペレチン酸の別名も持つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ヘキサデカン (hexadecane) は炭化水素の一種で、炭素が16連なった直鎖アルカン。分子式は C16H34。沸点287℃。融点18.2℃。異性体の数は10359。 かつてはセタン(cetane)と呼ばれていた。これは誘導体のセチルアルコールにちなむが、さらに遡るとセチルアルコールの原料であるクジラの学名ケートゥス(Cetus)に由来する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    バゼドキシフェン(bazedoxifene)は骨粗鬆症治療薬のひとつ。バゼドキシフェン酢酸塩 として用いられる。(がんの治療の可能性については多くの研究を保留中である) この薬剤は第三世代の選択的エストロゲン受容体モジュレーター (SERM)である。 2013年後半以来、 閉経後 骨粗鬆症の予防(治療ではないにおける合剤 Duaveeの一部として、バゼドキシフェンに対する米国FDAの承認を受けている。 乳がんと膵臓がんの治療の可能性についても研究されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    p21 / WAF1は、ヒト (6p21.2) に位置するCDKN1A遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。サイクリン依存性キナーゼ阻害因子1(cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1)あるいはCDK相互作用タンパク質1 (CDK-interacting protein 1) としても知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ジミナゼン(英:diminazene)とは動物用医薬品で抗ピロプラズマ薬のひとつ。ジミナゼン類の代表的薬物。CAS登録番号は [536-71-0]。2個のアミジン構造と、1個のトリアゼン構造を持つ。作用機序は原虫の嫌気的解糖を阻害することによるとされる。獣医学領域においてウシのBabesia ovata、イヌのBabesia gibsoniに有効であるが、反復投与によりウシにおいては脂肪変性、イヌにおいてはや出血といった副作用が生じる。その他のジミナゼン類の化合物としてはなどがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    8-キノリノールは、キノリンの炭素8番の水素がヒドロキシル基に置換した有機化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ジエチレングリコールモノメチルエーテル (Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether) とは有機化合物の一種である。ジエチレングリコールのヒドロキシ基が1個メチル化された化合物。 使用用途は氷結防止剤、印刷インキ、染料、粘度調整剤、樹脂溶剤、工業用中間原料など。 JP-5ジェット燃料の氷結防止剤として販売されている。 消防法に定める第4類危険物 第3石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    7-ニトロインダゾール (7-Nitroindazole、7-NI) は、7位がニトロ化したインダゾール環を含む複素環式化合物の小分子である。ニトロインダゾールは、神経細胞組織に存在しアルギニンをシトルリンと一酸化窒素に変換する神経型一酸化窒素合成酵素 (nNOS) の選択的阻害剤である。一酸化窒素は細胞膜を透過して隣の細胞に拡散し細胞シグナル伝達を行うため、ニトロインダゾールは間接的にこのシグナリングを阻害することとなる。他の阻害剤には、より強いが特異性の低いや異なる部位に作用するがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    デオキシアデノシン二リン酸(Deoxyadenosine diphosphate)は、である。一般的な核酸であるアデノシン三リン酸と関連があり、ヌクレオチドのペントースの2'炭素についた水酸基がなく、さらにATPよりもリン酸基が1つ少ない。 2'-デオキシアデノシン二リン酸は、dADPと略称される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インドメタシン(英: indometacin)とは非ステロイド性抗炎症薬の一つ。アラキドン酸カスケードにおけるシクロオキシゲナーゼ(COX)を阻害することによりプロスタグランジン類の生成を抑制することによって抗炎症作用を示す。また、抗炎症作用以外に鎮痛作用を持つ。 プロドラッグとしてインドメタシンファルネシル、アセメタシンがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カフェイン(英語: caffeine)は、アルカロイドの1種であり、プリン環を持ったキサンチンと類似した構造を持った有機化合物の1つとしても知られる。ヒトなどに対して興奮作用を持ち、世界で最も広く使われている精神刺激薬である。カフェインは、アデノシン受容体に拮抗することによって覚醒作用、解熱鎮痛作用、強心作用、利尿作用を示す。 フリードリープ・フェルディナント・ルンゲによりコーヒー(coffee)から単離されたため、カフェイン(ドイツ語: Coffein)と命名された。主に、コーヒー飲料、緑茶、ウーロン茶、紅茶、ココア、コーラ、エナジードリンクや栄養ドリンクなどの飲料、チョコレートなどにカフェインが含まれる。一方で、妊娠期や過敏体質によりカフェインレスコーヒー、麦茶などカフェインを含有しない飲料の需要もある。 医薬品では総合感冒薬や鎮痛薬などに用いられる。その際の副作用として不眠、めまいなどが含まれる。またカフェインの減量あるいは中止による禁断症状として、頭痛、集中欠如、疲労感、気分の落ち込みなど吐き気や筋肉痛が、およそ2日後をピークとして生じる場合がある。頭痛は1日平均235 mgの摂取で、2日目には52%が経験する。 カフェインは肝臓で発現している代謝酵素の1つであるCYP1A2で代謝されるため、この阻害作用のある薬と併用すると、血中濃度が高まり作用が強く出る薬物相互作用を引き起こし得る。一方、ニコチンにはCYP1A2の誘導作用があるため、習慣的な喫煙によってカフェインの作用は減弱する。なお、カフェインは肝臓ででも代謝される事が知られている。 また、ヒトでは加齢によって身体の水分量低下と相対的な脂肪の増加が発生するため、様々な薬物の分布容積が変化する事が知られており、カフェインの場合は分布容積が減少する。さらに、加齢によってCYP1A2は減少する傾向が有ると考えられている。したがって、高齢者ではカフェインの血中濃度が上昇し易く、作用が増強し易い。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エルゴステロール (ergosterol) は、分子式 C28H44O、分子量 396.65 のステロールの一種。骨格を持つ脂溶性物質である。カビなどの菌類においてラノステロールから生合成される。紫外線を受けてとなり、これを経てエルゴカルシフェロール(ビタミンD2)となる。 菌類の細胞膜を構成する物質であり、動物の細胞におけるコレステロールと同様な働きをする。菌類には存在するが動物には見られないという性質は抗真菌薬の開発に応用されている。トリパノソーマのような原生生物の細胞膜の流動化剤 (fluidizer) としても作用し、これは東アフリカでみられるアフリカ睡眠病に対して用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アラキドン酸-5-リポキシゲナーゼ (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) は、アラキドン酸代謝酵素の一つで、次の化学反応を触媒する酸化還元酵素である。 アラキドン酸 + O2 (5S,6S,7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-5,6-エポキシイコサ-7,9,11,14-テトラエン酸 + H2O 反応式の通り、この酵素の基質はアラキドン酸とO2、生成物は(5S,6S,7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-5,6-エポキシイコサ-7,9,11,14-テトラエン酸とH2Oである。 組織名はarachidonate:oxygen 5-oxidoreductaseで、別名にleukotriene-A4 synthase、δ5-lipoxygenase、5δ-lipoxygenase、arachidonic 5-lipoxygenase、arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase、C-5-lipoxygenase、LTA synthase、leukotriene A4 synthaseがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アドレナリン(adrenaline、英名)、エピネフリン(epinephrine、米名、IUPAC組織名:4-[1-ヒドロキシ-2-(メチルアミノ)エチル]ベンゼン-1,2-ジオール)は、副腎髄質より分泌されるホルモンであり、薬物である また、神経節や脳神経系における神経伝達物質でもある。分子式はC9H13NO3である。戦うか逃げるか反応において重要な役割を果たす。 ストレス反応の中心的役割を果たし、血中に放出されると心拍数や血圧を上げ、瞳孔を開きブドウ糖の血中濃度(血糖値)を上げる作用などがある。 「生体内で合成される生理活性物質」という捉え方と、「医薬品」という捉え方の違いから、生物学の教科書・論文では世界共通でアドレナリンと呼んでいるのに対して、医学においては世界共通でエピネフリンと呼ばれている。ただし、欧州薬局方では「アドレナリン」が採用されているほか、日本でも医薬品の正式名称を定める日本薬局方が2006年4月に改正され、一般名がエピネフリンからアドレナリンに変更されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    チラミン (Tyramine; 4-hydroxy phenylethylamine, C8H11NO) は、生体内での作用によりチロシン(Tyr)から産生されるアミンで、フェネチルアミンの誘導体の1つである。チラミンは、モノアミン神経伝達物質(セロトニン、ノルアドレナリン、アドレナリン、ヒスタミン、ドーパミン、アセチルコリンなど)と構造が良く似ている。さまざまな食品に含有されており、高血圧発作の誘因となる化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    TATA結合タンパク質(ターターけつごうタンパクしつ、英: TATA-binding protein、TBP)とは、TATAボックスと呼ばれるDNA配列に特に結合する基本転写因子のことである。このDNA配列は一部の真核生物の遺伝子のプロモーター領域においての約25塩基対上流で見つかっている。TBPは、様々なTBPに関連した因子とともにRNAポリメラーゼII転写開始前複合体を作り上げる基本転写因子であるTFIIDを作り上げる。特有のDNA配列に結合する転写開始前複合体である数少ないタンパク質の1つとして、RNAポリメラーゼIIが遺伝子の転写開始位置に結合する助けとなる。しかしながら、ヒトのプロモーター領域の10-20%にしかTATAボックスが存在しないと考えられている。それゆえ、TBPはRNAポリメラーゼIIの位置決定のみに必要とされているのではないと考えられている。 TBPはDNAを80°折り曲げることで二本鎖DNAを解離することに関与している(多くのA-T間の結合はより容易にほどける)。TBPはβシートによる数少ない溝に結合するという点で、特異なタンパク質である。 TBPのもう1つの特異な特徴は、タンパク質のN末端における長いグルタミンの連続である。この領域がC末端のDNAへの結合の活性を調節しており、この調節が転写複合体 (transcription complex) 形成と転写開始に影響を与えている。このポリグルタミン領域をコードするCAGの繰り返しの数が多くなり、結果、ポリグルタミン鎖が伸長する変異は、神経変性である脊髄小脳失調症17型 (SCA17) に関係している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カナバニン(Canavanine)は、豆果に含まれる、タンパク質を構成しないアミノ酸である。構造的にはアルギニンと関連があり、アルギニンのメチレン基(-CH2-)がカナバニンではオキサ基(酸素原子)になっている。カナバニンは主に種子に蓄積し、草食動物からの防護と成長中の胚の窒素源の2つの役割を持つ。カナバニンの毒性のメカニズムは、これを摂取した生物がアルギニンと間違えてタンパク質に取り込み、適切な機能を持たない構造的に異常なタンパク質が作られることによるものである。 ある特殊な草食動物は、カナバニンを効率的に代謝したり、新しいタンパク質への取込みを避けたりして、カナバニン耐性を持つ。この能力の例は、やの幼虫で見られ、大量のカナバニンの摂取にも耐えられる。これらの幼虫は、恐らく基質特異性の高いアルギニンtRNAリガーゼのためにカナバニンのタンパク質への取込みを避けることができる。対照的に、タバコスズメガの幼虫はアルギニンtRNAリガーゼの基質特異性が低いため、生体重で1.0 μg/kgという少量のカナバニンの摂取に耐えられない。これらの生物のアルギニンtRNAリガーゼは実験的に調べられていないが、タバコスズメガで、されたアルギニンとカナバニンの取込の比率が約3:1であることが示されている。 マメ科のDioclea megacarpaの種子は、多量のカナバニンを含んでいる。マメゾウムシ亜科のCaryedes brasiliensisはこれに耐性を持つが、既知で最も基質特異性の高いアルギニンtRNAリガーゼを持つ。この昆虫では、新しく合成されたタンパク質に取り込まれるカナバニンの放射性標識は、ほぼ検出されない。さらに、カナバニンを他のアミノ酸合成のための窒素源として用いることができる。 カナバニンを摂取させたNZB/W F1、NZB、DBA/2のマウスは、全身性エリテマトーデスと似た症状を示すが、1%のカナバニンを含むタンパク質を恒常的に摂取したBALB/cマウスは、寿命に変化は見られなかった。カナバニンの毒性は、恐らくタンパク質欠乏の状況で強まり、1%程度のカナバニンを含むの種子の摂取による毒性は、「イントゥ・ザ・ワイルド」で映画化されたの死の原因として示唆されている。 ムラサキウマゴヤシの種子と芽はカナバニンを含み、ヒトを含むサル目の全身性エリテマトーデス様症状やその他の自己免疫疾患と関連している。多くの場合、消費を止めると問題が解消される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    プロピオン酸(プロピオンさん、英: propionic acid)は、カルボン酸の一種。IUPAC命名法でプロパン酸 (propanoic acid)。消防法による第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。 語源は「最初の脂肪酸」という意味で、油脂の加水分解により得られる脂肪酸のうち、最も炭素数の少ないものであったことによる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エチレンジアミン四酢酸(エチレンジアミンしさくさん、ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)は、金属キレーション剤の1種であり、EDTA あるいはエデト酸と呼ばれることがある。通常、とくに断りのない場合、 EDTA はジナトリウム塩であり、日本薬局方ではエデト酸ナトリウムである。ジナトリウム塩であることを正確に記述したい場合や強調したい場合などは、エチレンジアミン四酢酸二ナトリウム、エチレンジアミン四酢酸二水素二ナトリウム、EDTA・2Na、などと記述される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ボスチニブ(Bosutinib)はチロシンキナーゼ阻害作用を持つ抗がん剤(分子標的薬)であり、慢性骨髄性白血病の治療に用いられる。ワイスにより創薬され、ファイザーによる買収後、同社で開発が継続された。商品名ボシュリフ。治験コードSKI-606。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キュリウム (英: curium [ˈkjʊəriəm]) は原子番号96の元素。元素記号は Cm。アクチノイド元素の一つ。超ウラン元素でもある。安定同位体は存在しない。 銀白色の金属で、常温、常圧で安定な結晶構造は面心立方構造 (α、fcc)で、約500℃で体心立方(β、dcc)、更に約1000℃で六方最密充填構造(γ、hcp)が安定となる。比重は理論値で13.51、融点は1340 °C (1350 °C)、沸点は3520 °C。原子価は+3、+4価。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グルコノラクトン (gluconolactone) は、グルコースの1位のヒドロキシ基がケトンに置き換わった、代表的なラクトンの一種である。別名をグルコノ-δ-ラクトンといい、GDL と略される。 生体内ではグルコース-1-デヒドロゲナーゼの作用によりグルコースから変換される。たとえば、ミツバチは体内でグルコースからグルコノラクトンを作り、蜂蜜に多く含まれる。そのため別名ハチミツ酸とも言われる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ヘキサフルオロベンゼン (Hexafluorobenzne, HFB, C6F6, Perfluorobenzne) は、ベンゼンの水素が全部フッ素で置き換えらた芳香族有機化合物である。技術的な使用は限定されているが、光化学反応の溶媒として推奨されている。研究室では、19F-NMR の標準、13C-NMR の溶媒と標準、1H-NMR の溶媒、赤外スペクトルの一部の研究をする場合の溶媒、紫外部領域にはほとんど吸収を示さないため紫外可視スペクトルの溶媒として使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    4-ニトロフェノール (4-nitrophenol) はニトロ基を有するフェノール化合物であり、別名としてp-ニトロフェノール、4-ヒドロキシニトロベンゼンとも呼ばれる。CAS登録番号 100-02-7、化審法3-777。PRTR第1種239。分子式 C6H5NO3。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キニーネ(蘭: kinine)またはキニン(英: quinine、クイニン)は、キナの樹皮に含まれる分子式C20H24N2O2のアルカロイドである。IUPAC名は(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)[(2S,4S,5R)-5-vinyl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-yl]-(R)-methanol。1820年にキナの樹皮から単離、命名され、1908年に平面構造が決定し、1944年に絶対立体配置も決定された。また1944年にロバート・バーンズ・ウッドワードらが全合成を達成した。ただしウッドワードらの全合成の成否については後述の通り議論がある。 マラリア原虫に特異的に毒性を示すマラリアの特効薬である。キューガーデンが移植を手がけて以来、帝国主義時代から第二次世界大戦を経てベトナム戦争まで、ずっとかけがえのない薬だった。米国は野戦病院等でキニーネを使い、1962-1964年頃に手持ちが底をついた。急に大量発注され、そこへ国際カルテルが便乗し、キニーネは暴騰した。参加企業は欧州諸共同体のキニーネ/キニジンメーカーを網羅していた。 その後、キニーネの構造を元にクロロキンやメフロキンなどの人工的な抗マラリア薬が開発され、ある程度の副作用のあるキニーネは代替されてあまり用いられなくなっていった。しかし、東南アジアおよび南アジア、アフリカ、南アメリカ中北部といった赤道直下の地域において熱帯熱マラリアにクロロキンやメフロキンに対して耐性を持つものが多くみられるようになったため、現在ではその治療に利用される。 また強い苦味を持つ物質として知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リバビリン(Ribavirin)は、抗ウイルス薬の一つで、主にC型肝炎やウイルス性出血熱等の治療で施行されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フルラゼパム (flurazepam) とは、ベンゾジアゼピン系の睡眠導入剤の一種。長時間作用型。 日本ではダルメート、ベノジールという商品名で発売されている。日本の処方箋医薬品であり、医師の処方箋なしでは入手することはできない。アメリカ・カナダ・オーストラリアではダルメーン。 連用により依存症、急激な量の減少により離脱症状を生じることがある。向精神薬に関する条約のスケジュールIVに指定されている。麻薬及び向精神薬取締法の第三種向精神薬である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アポシニン(アセトバニロン、アセトグアイアコンとも)は天然の有機化合物でバニリンと類似した構造を持つ。NADPHオキシダーゼ活性を阻害し活性酸素の生産を抑制する作用があるため、抗炎症効果を持つ。様々な植物から単離することができ、薬理学的研究が行われている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ベンジルアミン (benzylamine) とは有機化合物の一種で、アンモニアの水素がひとつベンジル基に置き換わった一級アミンである。外見は無色の液体で、有機合成の原料として用いられる。 ベンジルアミンはベンゾニトリルの水素化によって得られる。 二級アミンを合成したい場合、ベンジル基がによって除去可能であることから、ベンジルアミンはアンモニアの合成等価体として用いられる。 (XはClやBrなどのハロゲン、もしくはOTsなどの脱離基。) 一段階目の反応を進めるため、通常はHXを捕捉する塩基が加えられる。ベンジルアミンの代わりにアンモニアを用いると、RX との反応で三級アミンR3Nあるいは四級アンモニウム R4N+の生成が起こる。 空気に触れているとゆっくり炭酸塩へ変わる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ノナン (nonane) は化学式C9H20で表される直鎖アルカン炭化水素。無色、可燃性の液体であり、暖房、トラクター、ジェット燃料として使われているケロシンと呼ばれる石油の分留成分に含まれている。溶媒、蒸留チェイサー、燃料添加物、生分解性洗剤の成分としても使われている。 35種の構造異性体が存在する。 置換基はノニルである。対応するシクロアルカンはシクロノナン(C9H18)である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    テオフィリン(英語: Theophylline)は、茶葉に含まれる苦味成分であり、アルカロイドの一種で、カフェインやテオブロミンと同じキサンチン誘導体に分類される。強力な気管支拡張作用があり、医薬品として、気管支喘息や慢性気管支炎、慢性閉塞性肺疾患(COPD)などの呼吸器系疾患の治療に用いられる。しかしその際に、副作用で痙攣を起こすことがあり問題になっている。茶葉に含まれる量は、医薬品として用いられる量に比べて非常に少ない。カフェインが肝臓で代謝される際の産生物の一部である。テオフィリンの作用は主として、ホスホジエステラーゼの阻害によるセカンドメッセンジャーとしての細胞内cAMP濃度の増大によるものである。 日本における商品名はテオロング(エイザイ)、テオドール(田辺三菱製薬)、ユニフィル(大塚製薬)などがあるが、この他に現在は後発医薬品が各社から販売されている。徐放錠剤、徐放顆粒剤、内用液、シロップ剤等が存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トリデシル酸(Tridecylic acid)は、化学式CH3(CH2)11COOHの13炭素長の飽和脂肪酸である。系統名は、トリデカノン酸(tridecanoic acid)である。乳製品中に一般的に見られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    テノイルトリフルオロアセトン (英: thenoyltrifluoroacetone, C8H5F3O2S) は、薬理学的にキレート剤として使われる化合物である。電子伝達系の複合体IIをブロックし、細胞呼吸を阻害する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    UDP-グルコース-6-デヒドロゲナーゼ(UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase)は、次の化学反応を触媒する酸化還元酵素である。 UDP-グルコース + 2 NAD+ + H2O UDP-グルクロン酸 + 2 NADH + 2 H+ 反応式の通り、この酵素の基質はUDP-グルコースとNAD+と水、生成物はUDP-グルクロン酸とNADHとH+である。 組織名はUDP-glucose:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductaseである。別名に、UDP-glucose dehydrogenase、uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase、UDPG dehydrogenase、UDPG:NAD oxidoreductase、UDP-alpha-D-glucose:NAD oxidoreductase、UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase、uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase、UDP-D-glucose dehydrogenase、uridine diphosphate D-glucose dehydrogenaseがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エリスロマイシン (INN:erythromycin) とは、14員環マクロライド系抗菌薬の1つである。日本では「エリスロシン」の商品名でも販売されてきた経緯が有るものの、化学でエリスロシン(英語:erythrosine)と言った場合には、全く別な赤色の合成着色料の1種の名称である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ボリノスタット(Vorinostat)は、別名:スベロイルアニリドヒドロキサム酸(スベロイル+アニリド+ヒドロキサム酸、SAHA)として知られる化合物である。ヒストン脱アセチル化酵素(HDAC)阻害薬であり、広くエピジェネティクな活性を有する。商品名ゾリンザ。 他剤治療抵抗性・再発性の皮膚T細胞性リンパ腫(CTCL)への効果が期待される。日本における効能・効果は、「皮膚T細胞性リンパ腫」である。 またボリノスタットはHIV-1に感染した静止期のCD4+T細胞からHIV遺伝子を「放り出し」、プロウイルス状態でのHIV-1の潜伏を阻止できることが示された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キナゾリン (quinazoline) とは、ベンゼン環とピリミジン環の2個の6員環が縮合した構造を持つ芳香族化合物。分子式は  C8H6N2 で、外見は黄色の結晶。 医療では、抗マラリア剤やがんの治療薬にキナゾリンの誘導体が利用される。例えば降圧薬(α受容体遮断薬)のドキサゾシンはキナゾリン環を含む。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リナグリプチン(Linagliptin)は、ジペプチジルペプチダーゼ阻害薬に分類される経口血糖降下薬である。ジペプチジルペプチダーゼはインクレチンの分解などに関係する酵素であり、これを阻害することにより血中のグルカゴン様ペプチド-1(GLP-1)の濃度を高め、血清インスリン濃度の上昇 および 血糖値の低下をもたらすと考えられている。日本では商品名トラゼンタで、日本イーライリリーおよび日本ベーリンガーインゲルハイムから販売されている。 GLP-1アナログ製剤と同じくインクレチン関連薬に分類される。SU剤に代表される経口血糖降下薬に比べて、低血糖のリスクが少ないと言われている。副作用としては、腹部膨満・便秘・浮腫などが報告されている。 ジペプチジルペプチダーゼ-4(DPP-4)によって分解されるGLP-1以外のペプチド基質については、DPP-4の項を参照されたい。 リナグリプチンを含むDPP-4 阻害薬は、癌リスク上昇と関連していなかった旨が報告されたが、解析に用いられた研究の試験期間は二年以下と短い。ゆえに、長期的な癌リスクは、現時点では明らかではないと考えるべきである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ヒポキサンチン(Hypoxanthine)は、天然に存在するプリン誘導体の一つである。ヒポキサンチンは核酸で見られ、ヌクレオシドイノシンの形でtRNAのアンチコドンに存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    レニン(Renin, EC.3.4.23.15)はアンジオテンシノーゲンのペプチド結合を分解してアンジオテンシンIを合成するタンパク質分解酵素の一種。アンジオテンシノーゲン中の非常に特異的なペプチド配列を認識し分解するため、発見当初は活性化の仕組みがわからずホルモンかキナーゼの一種ではないかと考えられていた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アミトリプチリン(Amitriptyline)は、抗うつ薬の中でも最初に開発された三環系抗うつ薬(TCA)の一種である。主に抗うつ用途として処方されるケースが多いが、神経痛や薬物乱用頭痛の緩和、それにともなう頭痛薬の断薬などを目的に処方されるケースもある。作用機序としては、脳内においてノルアドレナリン及びセロトニンの再取り込みを抑制し、シナプス領域のモノアミンが増量する。日本での先発品名はトリプタノール、ラントロン、旧称ノーマルンである。 副作用では添付文書などにおいて、自殺リスクの増加のおそれについての注意がある。減薬は徐々に行う必要がある。抗コリン作用が強く、口渇、便秘、めまい、眠気、排尿障害、などの三環系抗うつ薬にありがちな副作用が強く現れやすい。 世界保健機関の必須医薬品の一覧に収録されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    デオキシグアノシン三リン酸(Deoxyguanosine triphosphate、dGTP)は、ヌクレオシド三リン酸であり、DNA複製に用いられるヌクレオチドの前駆体である。この物質は、シークエンスやクローニングにおけるポリメラーゼ連鎖反応に用いられる。また、単純ヘルペスウイルスの治療に用いられるアシクロビルを競合阻害する 。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ベンゼン(英: benzene)は、分子式 C6H6、分子量 78.11 の最も単純な芳香族炭化水素である。原油に含まれており、石油化学における基礎的化合物の1つである。分野によっては慣用としてドイツ語 (Benzol:ベンツォール) 風にベンゾールと呼ぶことがある。ベンジン(benzine、主として炭素数5 - 10の飽和炭化水素からなる混合物)とはまったく別の物質であるが、英語では異綴の同音異義語である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    尿素(にょうそ、英: urea)は、有機化合物で、生体の代謝に使われ尿中に排泄される。カルバミドともいう。無機化合物から初めて合成された有機化合物として、有機化学史上、重要な物質である。 保水作用があり皮膚に水分を保持している成分のひとつで、保湿剤や濃度を高くし角質融解に使われる。肥料や防氷剤にも使われる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    α2-マクログロブリン(英: alpha-2-Macroglobulin、略称: α2M)は、血液中に存在する巨大(720 kDa)な血漿タンパク質である。主に肝臓で産生されるが、マクロファージ、線維芽細胞、副腎皮質細胞でも局所的な合成が行われる。ヒトではA2M遺伝子にコードされる。 α2-マクログロブリンは抗プロテアーゼ機能を持ち、きわめて多様なプロテアーゼを不活性化することができる。プラスミンやカリクレインを阻害し、の阻害因子として機能する。トロンビンを阻害し、血液凝固の阻害因子としても機能する。α2-マクログロブリンは、血小板由来成長因子(PDGF)や塩基性線維芽細胞増殖因子(bFGF)、TGF-β、インスリン、IL-1βなど、多数の成長因子やサイトカインと結合し、これらの生物学的活性に影響を与えている可能性がある。 疾患と関係した特異的な欠乏症や、α2-マクログロブリンが低濃度となることが原因となる疾患も知られていない。ネフローゼ症候群において、他の低分子量タンパク質が尿中へ失われた際、α2-マクログロブリンの濃度は増加する。α2-マクログロブリンはサイズが大きいため尿中への喪失を免れ、膠質浸透圧の維持に寄与している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    チミン (thymine) はデオキシリボ核酸 (DNA) を構成する塩基の1つで、ピリミジンの誘導体。5-メチルウラシルとも呼ばれるように、ウラシルの5位の炭素をメチル化した構造を持つ。英発音に従ってサイミンともいう。DNA中にのみ見られ、リボ核酸 (RNA) ではほとんどの場合ウラシルに置き換わっている。2本の水素結合を介してアデニンと結合する。 DNA はアデニン (A)、グアニン (G)、シトシン (C)、チミン (T) の4種で構成されている。アデニン、グアニン、シトシンは RNAの核酸塩基にも同じ構造が見られるが、RNAではチミン (T) がウラシルに置き換わっている。チミンとウラシルは共にピリミジン環を持つ非常に似た塩基である。 シトシンが化学分解されるとウラシルが生成してしまうため、DNAではウラシルの代わりにチミンが用いられるようになった。これによりシトシンの分解により誤って生成してしまったウラシルを検出し、修復することが可能になるなどの利点が生じた。DNAは配列を保存することが何より重要であるため、DNAにチミンが用いられることは理に適っていると言える。一方、RNAにおいては配列の正確性がそれほど重要ではないため、ウラシルが用いられていると考えられる。 チミンの生合成については、デオキシウリジン一リン酸と5,10-メチレンテトラヒドロ葉酸は、チミジル酸シンターゼ (FAD)によりメチル化されたチミジル酸(dTMP)とテトラヒドロ葉酸を生成する。 (反応式)5,10-メチレンテトラヒドロ葉酸 + デオキシウリジン一リン酸(dUMP) + FADH2 チミジル酸(dTMP) + テトラヒドロ葉酸 + FAD なお、DNAの合成は、dUMP(デオキシウリジン一リン酸)-dTMP(チミジル酸)-dTDP(チミジン二リン酸)-dTTP(チミジン三リン酸)と進み、リン酸2分子分のピロリン酸が遊離して、チミジル酸に相当する部分がDNA鎖のデオキシリボースの3'位に結合することで、アデニン、グアニン、シトシン、チミンと4種類あるDNA塩基のうちのチミンが完成する。 DNAの変異として一般的なものに、隣接した2個のチミンあるいはシトシンが紫外線によって二量体となり、機能障害を引き起こす「キンク」と呼ばれる部分を形成する現象がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トリクロサン(英語: triclosan)は、医薬部外品の薬用石鹸、うがい薬、食器用洗剤、練り歯磨き、脱臭剤、手の消毒剤、及び化粧品など、様々な場面で使用されている、一般的な家庭用の抗菌剤である。アメリカではその効果への疑問や健康リスクからトリクロサンを含む一般用抗菌石鹸の販売は禁止されている。 トリクロサンは高濃度では、複数の細胞質と細胞膜を標的にとして作用する。低濃度では、エノイル酵素に結合し、脂肪酸合成を阻害することにより、静菌的に作用する。脂肪酸は、細胞膜を構築したり再生するために必要である。ヒトはENR酵素(エノイル[アシル輸送タンパク質]レダクターゼ (NADH))を持っていないため影響を受けないとされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    チチン(Titin)またはコネクチン(connectin)は、骨格筋の収縮に関わるタンパク質である。長さ1µmを超える巨大なタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    チクロピジン(Ticlopidine)は、チエノピリジン系の抗血小板剤である。日本や台湾においては、医薬品としての商品名としてパナルジンとも呼ばれている。英語圏での商品名はTiclidである。体内で代謝を受けてはじめて薬効を発揮するプロドラッグであり、肝臓で代謝されたのち血小板膜上のアデノシン二リン酸(ADP)受容体であるP2Y12受容体を阻害する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トリメシン酸は、化学式C9H6O6で表される有機化合物である。ベンゼン環の1、3、5位にカルボン酸が結合している構造から、1,3,5-ベンゼントリカルボン酸とも称する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ドデカノール (dodecanol) は高級アルコールの一種。炭素数は12。ラウリン酸(ヤシ油)の還元によって得ることができる。 用途は界面活性剤の製造(ラウリル硫酸ナトリウム、ラウレス硫酸ナトリウムなど)、潤滑油。 エタノールの約半分の毒性があり、海洋生物にとっては非常に有害である。LD50は12800 mg/kg(ラット、経口)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エファビレンツ(efavirenz, EFV)は商標名のサスティバ(Sustiva)などで販売されるHIV/エイズの予防と治療に用いられるである。一般的に他の抗レトロウイルス薬との併用が勧められる。注射針による怪我やその他の潜在するウイルスに曝露した場合の感染予防に用いられる。単体または混合薬ので売られる。投与法は経口である。 主な副作用には発疹、吐き気、頭痛、疲労感、不眠症などがあげられる。一部の発疹にはスティーブンス・ジョンソン症候群など重度の副作用がある。その他の重度の副作用には、うつ病、、肝臓病、発作があげられる。妊娠中の使用は安全ではない。(NNRTI)の一つであり、その作用機序は逆転写酵素の働きを阻害することで効果がある。 エファビレンツが米国で医薬品として承認されたのは1998年である。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されており、最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。2015年の時点では後発医薬品としては入手できない。開発途上国での卸売価格は1か月分約$3.27~$9.15米ドルである。2015年時点の米国での一般的な1か月分の薬にかかる費用は$200米ドル以上である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    メタンチオール (methanethiol) は化学式 CH3SH で表されるチオールの一種である。メチルメルカプタン (methyl mercaptan) とも呼ばれる。腐ったタマネギのにおいがする無色の気体である。天然にはある種の種実類やチーズなどにも含まれ、ヒトや動物の血液、脳、およびその他の組織中にも存在する。動物の糞から放出される。また、口臭や屁の悪臭の成分のひとつである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ピルビン酸(ピルビンさん、Pyruvic acid)は有機化合物で、カルボン酸の一種。IUPAC命名法で 2-オキソプロパン酸 (2-oxopropanoic acid) と表される。α-ケトプロピオン酸 (α-ketopropionic acid) あるいは焦性ブドウ酸 (pyroracemic acid) とも呼ばれる。水、エタノール、エーテルなど、さまざまな極性溶媒や無極性溶媒と任意な比率で混和する。酢酸に似た酸味臭を示す。2位のカルボニル基を還元すると乳酸となる。 生体内では解糖系による糖の酸化で生成する。 ピルビン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ複合体の作用により補酵素Aと結合するとアセチルCoAとなり、クエン酸回路や脂肪酸合成系に組み込まれる。 また、グルタミン酸からアミノ基を転移されるとアラニンになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グルカゴン ( Glucagon ) とは、29アミノ酸残基からなるペプチドホルモンの一種であり、タンパク質およびアミノ酸( Amino Acid )の代謝に重要な機能を持つ。分子量3,485。インスリン( Insulin' )とともに血糖値( Blood Glucose Levels, Blood Sugar Concentration )の制御に関係する重要なホルモンの一つである。 インスリンは血糖値を低下させるが、グルカゴンはそれとは逆に血糖値を上昇させるホルモンの一つであり、人体が低血糖になるのを防ぐため、肝細胞に働きかけることでグリコーゲンを分解するよう信号を送り、血糖値の上昇を促進する(血糖値を低下させるホルモンはインスリンのみであるが、血糖値を上昇させるホルモンはグルカゴン以外にも複数備わっている)。主に膵臓のランゲルハンス島のA細胞(α細胞)で生合成・分泌されるほかに、消化管からも分泌される。 1923年、キンボール( Kimball )とマーリン( Murlin )が、膵臓からの抽出物から発見した。「膵外グルカゴン」は「腸管グルカゴン」とも呼ばれ、胃底部に最も多く分布する。発見者は小野一幸。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アンゲリカ酸(アンゲリカさん、Angelic acid)、アンゼリカ酸は不飽和カルボン酸の一種である。IUPAC名は (Z)-2-メチルブタ-2-エン酸 (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid。セイヨウトウキ(アンゼリカ、学名 Angelica archangelica)の根から、ルートヴィヒ・ブフナー (Ludwig Andreas Buchner) によって1842年に発見された。そのほかセリ科の植物などに含まれる。 カルボキシル基の隣に炭素-炭素二重結合を持ち、チグリン酸のシス・トランス異性体である。揮発性がある無色の結晶で、刺激性のある酸味とにおいを持つ。以前は鎮静剤として用いられていた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ビオチン(英: biotin)は、ビタミンB群に分類される水溶性ビタミンの一種で、ビタミンB7(英: vitamin B7)とも呼ばれるが、欠乏症を起こすことが稀なため、単にビオチンと呼ばれることも多い。栄養素のひとつ。古い呼称でビタミンH、補酵素R。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グルタル酸(グルタルさん、Glutaric acid)は構造式 HOOC–(CH2)3–COOH で表されるカルボン酸の一つ。IUPAC命名法では1,5-ペンタン二酸(1,5-pentanedioic acid)またはプロパン-1,3-ジカルボン酸(propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid)である。無色からわずかに薄い黄色の結晶または結晶性粉末で、水に可溶、アルコール、エーテルに易溶。融点95~98℃、沸点200℃、分子量132.11。CAS登録番号は110-94-1。 グルタル酸は、トリプトファンの代謝経路であるグルタル酸経路や、代謝において最も重要なクエン酸回路に関与している。2位にアミノ基が結合した2-アミノグルタル酸は、重要なアミノ酸であるグルタミン酸として知られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    tert-ブチルアミン(ターシャリーブチルアミン、英: tert-Butylamine)は、tert-ブチル基を持ち、化学式C4H11Nで表される脂肪族アミンの一種。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アミノグアニジン(AminoguanidineまたはPimagedine)は曾て糖尿病性腎症治療薬として開発されていた化合物である。ジアミンオキシダーゼや一酸化窒素合成酵素を阻害する。と反応して(AGEs)を減少させる。ロケット燃料としても使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アピキサバン(Apixaban、開発コードBMS-562247-01)は、血栓塞栓症の治療・予防に用いられる、経口投与が可能な抗凝固剤の1つである。商品名エリキュース。血液凝固因子の1種であるXa因子を薬剤そのものが阻害する、に分類される。また、第Xa因子は酵素なので、酵素阻害剤に分類される薬剤でもある。なお、肝代謝型(肝排泄型)の薬剤としても知られる。 欧州で2012年4月に、日本で2012年12月に、米国で2012年12月に承認された。当初の承認は心房細動患者の血栓症予防であったが、2014年〜2015年に静脈血栓塞栓症の治療と再発予防について追加承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ドデカン(Dodecane)は、炭素数12の直鎖アルカンである。常温常圧で無色の液体。可燃性があり、日本では消防法により危険物第4類に指定されている。他のアルカンと同様、無極性溶媒によくとける。355の構造異性体がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ラクトース(Lactose)または乳糖(にゅうとう)は、二糖類の低甘味度甘味料。ショ糖の0.4倍の甘味を有する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    環状グアノシン一リン酸(Cyclic guanosine monophosphate、cGMP)は、グアノシン三リン酸(GTP)から誘導されるである。cGMPは環状アデノシン一リン酸と同様にセカンドメッセンジャーとして利用される。ペプチドホルモンが細胞膜に結合するとプロテインキナーゼを活性化させる作用がよく知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    スペルミジン (spermidine) はポリアミンに分類される有機化合物で、の際にRNAポリメラーゼの一種である酵素を活性化するのに利用されることがある。 一酸化窒素合成酵素 (nNOS) を阻害する、DNAへの結合・誘発作用を持つ、T4 ポリヌクレオチドキナーゼ活性を誘起する、などの特徴がある。DNA結合タンパク質の精製に利用することもできる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    タモキシフェン(Tamoxifen、TAM)とは、抗悪性腫瘍剤(抗がん剤)の一種。イギリスICI社(現アストラゼネカ社)によって1963年に開発された非ステロイド性のである。クエン酸塩が、ノルバデックス(販売:アストラゼネカ)などの商品名で市販されている。 世界保健機関 (WHO) の下部組織によるIARC発がん性リスク一覧のグループ1に属する。ヒトに対する発癌性の十分な証拠がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インドリン(Indoline)は、複素環式化合物である。ベンゼンの六員環と窒素を含む五員環が一辺を共有して結合した構造をしている。窒素原子の位置が違う異性体にイソインドリンがある。酸化型はインドールである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    塩化銅(II)(えんかどう に、英: copper(II) chloride)は、化学式が CuCl2 と表される銅の塩化物である。無水物と二水和物がある。無水物は褐色がかった黄色であり、二水和物は青緑色の結晶である。潮解性があり、無水物は吸湿性もある。水和物は110℃で無水物になる。993℃まで熱すると、塩化銅(I)と塩素に分解する。水に溶けやすく、メタノール、エタノール、アセトン、酢酸エチルなどに可溶。CAS登録番号は[7447-39-4]。有毒で、毒物及び劇物取締法により、劇物に指定されている。また、電気分解によって、塩素と銅に分解できることから中学校の理科で電気分解の学習にも用いられる。花火の緑色の発色剤としても用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    O-アセチルセリン(O-acetylserine)は、α-アミノ酸の一つで、構造式がHO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3の化合物である。細菌や植物でシステイン生合成の中間体となる。 (EC 2.3.1.30)によるセリンのアセチル化によって生合成され、システインシンターゼ(EC 2.5.1.47)によって、硫黄源を用いてシステインに変換されると同時に酢酸を放出する。 HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OH → HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3 → HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アンモニウム(ammonium)は、化学式NH4+の分子イオンである。アンモニア(NH3)のプロトン化によって形成されるオニウムイオンである。アンモニウムは、NH4+の1つ以上の水素原子が有機基に置き換わってできる、陽電荷を持った、またはプロトン化置換基を持つアミンや、第四級アンモニウムカチオン(NR4+)に対する一般名でもある。「アンモニウムイオン」とも呼ばれるが、「アンモニウム」という用語自体がイオンの名前である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ポナチニブ(Ponatinib、開発コード:AP24534)は、慢性期慢性骨髄性白血病 (CML)およびフィラデルフィア染色体陽性(Ph+)急性リンパ性白血病(ALL)治療のための経口薬で、多標的のチロシンキナーゼ阻害剤である。CMLの中にはT315I変異を有するものがあり、イマチニブ等の治療に抵抗性を示すが、ポナチニブは、このようなタイプの腫瘍に効果を示す様に設計されている。 米国食品医薬品局は、2012年12月に本剤を承認候補薬として認定したが、「生命を脅かす血栓や重度の血管狭窄のリスクがある」として、2013年10月31日に販売を一時停止させた。その後、添付文書に新たな「黒枠警告」が設置され、本剤を使用する事によるリスクとベネフィットをより適切に評価するための「リスク評価および軽減戦略」が策定され、2013年12月20日に停止が一部解除された。 日本では、2016年1月に大塚製薬が製造販売承認申請を行い、同年9月に承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カスタノスペルミン (castanospermine) は、オーストラリアビーンズ (Castanospermum australe) の種から初めて単離されたインドリジジンアルカロイドである。数種のグルコシダーゼの強力な阻害剤であり、抗ウイルス活性をもつ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    c-Fosは、レトロウイルスのがん遺伝子v-fosのホモログであるがん原遺伝子(ヒトではFOS)にコードされるタンパク質である。c-Fosはラット線維芽細胞において、FBJ MSV(Finkel–Biskis–Jinkins murine osteogenic sarcoma virus)と呼ばれるウイルスの形質転換遺伝子との類似性から発見された。c-FosはFosファミリーの転写因子であり、Fosファミリーには他に、、が含まれる。c-Fosはとヘテロ二量体を形成してAP-1複合体となり、標的遺伝子のプロモーターやエンハンサー領域のAP-1特異的部位のDNAに結合することで、細胞外のシグナルを遺伝子発現の変化へと変換する。c-Fosは多くの細胞機能で重要な役割を果たしており、さまざまながんで過剰発現していることが知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    グリチルレチン酸(Glycyrrhetinic acid)は、甘草から得られるグリチルリチン酸の加水分解によって得られるβ-アミリン(オレアナン)系の五環式テルペノイド誘導体の一つ。アロエやキニーネのような薬品の苦味を緩和するための調味料として用いられる。胃潰瘍の治療に効果的であり、去痰剤としての特性もある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    メチラポン(Metyrapone)は副腎機能障害の診断や、時としてクッシング症候群の治療に使用される薬物の一つである。11-β-ヒドロキシラーゼを阻害することによりコルチゾールの合成を抑制する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    テトラヒドロゲストリノン (tetrahydrogestrinone) とは、によって開発されたアナボリックステロイドである。THG、クリア (the clear) とも呼ばれる。アンドロゲン受容体とプロゲステロン受容体に親和性があるが、エストロゲン受容体にはない。この薬物は、禁止薬物のアナボリックステロイドであるとと深い関連のあるデザイナードラッグだと考えられている。また、2005年に予定されていた認可より前の2003年には、アメリカ食品医薬品局(FDA)が認可していない新薬としても言及されていた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トリグリム (triglyme) とは、有機化学で用いられる高沸点の溶媒の一種。別名としてトリグライム、トリエチレングリコールジメチルエーテルとも呼ばれる。 triglyme は triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether の略。 トリエチレングリコールの2つのヒドロキシ基をメチル化した構造を持つ。水、各種アルコール、ジエチルエーテル、各種炭化水素系の溶媒と混和する。 トリグリムは主に化学反応の溶媒として用いられる。金属カチオンにキレート配位して対アニオンを活性化させることができる。そのため、グリニャール試薬や金属ヒドリドなどの金属化合物を反応剤とする場合に反応速度を上げる目的で用いられる。 この溶媒は塩基性に強く、強塩基存在下に加熱しても通常は安定である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    クリゾチニブ (英語: Crizotinib) は、ALK(未分化リンパ腫キナーゼ)および阻害薬であり、ALK融合遺伝子陽性の切除不能な進行・再発の非小細胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer、略称:NSCLC)の治療に用いられる。商品名はザーコリ。また、米国ではROS1陽性転移性NSCLC治療薬としても承認されている。未分化大細胞型リンパ腫、神経芽細胞腫、その他固形進行癌の治療での安全性および有効性について臨床試験が実施されている。開発コードPF-02341066。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フルクトース (fructose)、または果糖(かとう、fruit sugar)は、糖の一種であり、単糖の一つで、三文字表記はFruである。水溶性の白色の結晶であり、全ての糖の中で最も多く水に溶ける。フルクトースは、ハチミツ、木に成る果実、ベリー類、メロン、ある種の根菜に多量に含まれている。毎年240,000トンの結晶フルクトースが合成されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アリルアミン(または、3-アミノプロペン、3-アミノプロピレン、モノアリルアミン、2-プロペンアミン、2-プロペン-1-アミン)は、化学式C3H7Nのアミンの有機化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    レスベラトロール(英語: resveratrol)はスチルベノイド(スチルベン誘導体)ポリフェノールの一種。系統名は3,5,4'-トリヒドロキシ-trans-スチルベン。いくつかの植物でファイトアレキシンとして機能しており、またブドウの果皮などにも含まれる抗酸化物質として知られる。 1939年、北海道帝国大学の高岡道夫により有毒植物バイケイソウ(Veratrum album)から発見され(有毒成分ではない)、レゾルシノール(Resorcinol)構造を有することから命名された。 レスベラトロールは赤ワインに含まれることから、フレンチパラドックスとの関連が指摘されており、心血管関連疾患の予防効果が期待されている。 レスベラトロールは寿命延長作用が、酵母、線虫、ハエ、魚類の研究で報告され、2006年には「Nature」誌にてヒトと同じ哺乳類であるマウスの寿命を延長させるとの成果が発表され、種を超えた寿命延長作用を持つとして大きな注目を集めた。 マウスなどのモデル生物・実験動物を用いた研究では、寿命延長・抗炎症・抗癌・認知症予防・放射線による障害の抑止・血糖降下、脂肪の合成や蓄積に関わる酵素の抑制などの効果が報告されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ノルトリプチリン (nortriptyline) は、抗うつ薬として用いられる有機化合物の一種。第1世代の三環系抗うつ薬として知られ、うつ病、うつ状態などの治療に用いられる。脳内神経末端へのノルアドレナリン、セロトニンの再取り込みを阻害する。無臭で水に不溶。 塩酸塩が、商品名ノリトレンで大日本住友製薬から販売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エトポシド(Etoposide)とは、メギ科の植物Podophyllum peltatum あるいはP.emodi の根茎から抽出した結晶性成分であるポドフィロトキシンを原料とし、1966年に合成された抗悪性腫瘍剤(抗がん剤)。商品名は、ラステット(販売:日本化薬)、ベプシド(販売:ブリストル・マイヤーズ)。VP-16という略号で表されることもある。 WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フェノール (英: phenol、benzenol) は、 * 広義には、芳香環(特にフェニル基のRの部分)に水酸基(ヒドロキシ基)が結合した化合物全般である「フェノール類」を指す。化学式はArOHで表される(Arはベンゼン環やナフタレン環など)。 * 狭義には、フェノール類のうち もっとも簡単な化合物であるヒドロキシベンゼン、つまりベンゼンの水素原子の一つが水酸基(ヒドロキシル基)に置換された化合物のこと。石炭酸。本記事では、この物質を中心に解説する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ヒドロコルチゾン(Hydrocortisone)は、副腎皮質ホルモンのコルチゾールが医薬品として販売される際の成分名。急性副腎不全、先天性副腎過形成症、高カルシウム血症、甲状腺炎、関節リウマチ、皮膚炎、気管支喘息、慢性閉塞性肺疾患に使われる。口腔、外用、または注射で利用できる。長期にわたって使用してから中止する際は、ゆっくりやめていく。ステロイド外用薬では日本での格付け5段階中4の酪酸プロピオン酸ヒドロコルチゾン(商品名パンデル)、2のミディアムの医薬品ヒドロコルチゾン酪酸エステル(商品名ロコイド)。 副作用には、気分の変動、感染症の危険性の増加、浮腫がある。長期的な使用による一般的な副作用には骨粗鬆症、腹痛、身体虚弱、痣、カンジダ症がある。妊婦における使用の安全性は不明。抗炎症作用と免疫抑制作用が作用する。 ヒドロコルチゾンは1955年に発見された。 WHO必須医薬品の一覧に収載されている。一般医薬品も利用できる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アグマチン(英: Agmatine、独: Agmatin)は、アルギニンの脱炭酸化生成物であり、ポリアミン生合成の中間体である。神経伝達物質であると推測されている。脳で生産され、シナプス小胞に貯蔵される。膜の脱分極によって放出され、によって尿素とプトレシンに分解されて不活化される。アグマチンはα2-アドレナリン受容体とイミダゾリン結合部位に結合し、NMDA型グルタミン酸受容体やカチオンリガンド依存性イオンチャネルをブロックするほか、一酸化窒素合成酵素の働きを阻害または増強する。また、ペプチドホルモンの放出を促進する作用も持つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リポ酸(lipoic acid、別名:α-リポ酸、チオクト酸)は、多数の酵素の補助因子として欠かせない光学活性のある有機化合物である。抗酸化物質。カルボキシル基と環状のジスルフィドを含んでいる。生物学上で重要なのはR体である。リポ酸の酸化体は、還元体はジヒドロリポ酸である。 メタアナリシスでは糖尿病の指標改善や、少しではあるが体重減少効果が明らかになっている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    α-シヌクレイン (あるふぁ-しぬくれいん) はSNCA 遺伝子によってエンコードされるアミノ酸140残基からなるタンパク質。 このタンパクの断片が、アルツハイマー病に蓄積するアミロイド中の (主な構成成分であるアミロイドベータとは別の) 成分として発見され、もとのタンパク質がNACP (Non-Abeta component precursor 非アミロイド成分の前駆体) と命名された。後にこれがシビレエイ属のシヌクレインタンパクと相同であることがわかり、ヒトα-シヌクレインと呼ばれるようになった。 α-シヌクレインの蓄積は、パーキンソン病をはじめとする神経変性疾患 (いわゆるシヌクレイノパチー) の原因とされている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    オクチルアルコール (octyl alcohols) または オクタノール (octanols) とは、炭素数8の脂肪族一価アルコールの総称である。 n-オクタノール、イソオクチルアルコール、2-エチルヘキサノールなど、構造異性体が存在する。このうち、2-エチルヘキサノールについては当該記事を参照。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    Mycは、転写因子をコードする遺伝子ファミリーであり、かつがん原遺伝子のファミリーである。Mycファミリーは、関連する3つのヒト遺伝子c-Myc()、l-Myc()、n-Myc(MYCN)から構成される。c-Myc(単にMyc、MYCと呼ばれることもある)はこのファミリーで最初に発見された遺伝子であり、名称はウイルス遺伝子v-mycとの相同性に由来する。 がんでは、c-Mycはしばしば恒常的に発現している。c-Mycによって多くの遺伝子の発現が上昇し、その一部は細胞増殖に関与しているため、がんの形成に寄与することとなる。c-Mycと関係した染色体転座は、バーキットリンパ腫の症例の大部分で重要な役割を果たしている。c-Myc遺伝子の恒常的なアップレギュレーションは頸部、大腸、胸部、肺、胃の癌腫でも観察されている。そのため、Mycは抗がん剤の有望な標的であると考えられている。残念ながら、Mycは抗がん剤の標的として適さないいくつかの特徴を持っているため、タンパク質自身を標的とする低分子化合物ではなく、MycをコードするmRNAを標的とするなど、間接的にタンパク質に作用することが必要である。 ヒトゲノムでは、c-Mycはに位置しており、への結合を介して全遺伝子の15%の発現を調節していると考えられている。 典型的な転写因子としての役割に加えて、N-Mycはヒストンアセチル化酵素をリクルートする可能性がある。これによって、ヒストンのアセチル化を介して全体的なクロマチン構造の調節が可能となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ブロモクリプチン(英: Bromocriptine、商品名 Parlodel(パーロデル)など)は、下垂体腫瘍、 パーキンソン病(PD)、高プロラクチン血症 、神経弛緩薬悪性症候群、および2型糖尿病の治療に用いられる、エルゴリン誘導体でドーパミンアゴニスト。 1968年に特許を取得し、1975年に医療用として承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ゲフィチニブ(Gefitinib)は、上皮成長因子受容体 (EGFR) のチロシンキナーゼを選択的に阻害する内服抗がん剤。癌の増殖などに関係する特定の分子を狙い撃ちする分子標的治療薬の一種である。商品名はイレッサ (Iressa) で、アストラゼネカが製造・販売。褐色の錠剤で一錠250mgのゲフィチニブを含有する。ゲフィチニブ製剤は手術不能または再発した非小細胞肺癌に対する治療薬として用いられる。 イレッサは2002年7月5日、世界に先駆けて日本で承認され、2003年5月5日、アメリカ食品医薬品局 (FDA) での承認を含め、いくつかの国で承認を受けた。しかし、無作為比較臨床試験(ISEL試験、後述)の結果、プラセボと比較して生存期間を延長することができなかったため、2005年1月4日アストラゼネカは欧州医薬品局 (EMEA) への承認申請を取り下げ、また2005年6月17日、FDAは本薬剤の新規使用を原則禁止とした。その後2009年7月1日、欧州医薬品局は、後述のINTEREST試験とIPASS試験の2つの無作為化第III相臨床試験の結果をもとに、成人のEGFR遺伝子変異陽性の局所進行または転移を有する非小細胞肺癌を対象にイレッサの販売承認を行った。2009年現在イレッサを承認している国は、日本を含めたアジア諸国、欧州、オーストラリア、メキシコ、アルゼンチンである。ゲフィチニブは白色から黄白色の粉末。開発コード名ZD1839。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シアン化物中毒(シアンかぶつちゅうどく、英: cyanide poisoning)は多くの種類のシアン化物にさらされることによって起こる中毒である。シアン化合物中毒(シアンかごうぶつちゅうどく)、シアン中毒(シアンちゅうどく)、青酸中毒(せいさんちゅうどく)とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ホメピゾール(Fomepizole、別名:4-メチルピラゾール)は、エチレングリコールまたはメタノール中毒ならびにその疑い例の解毒に用いる医薬品である。単独投与またはダイアライザーによる透析と並行して用いる。それとは別に、錯体化学での4-メチルピラゾールの挙動が研究されている。WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    4-ヒドロキシベンズアルデヒド(4-hydroxybenzaldehyde)は、3種あるヒドロキシベンズアルデヒドの異性体の一つである。ラン科のオニノヤガラやGaleola faberi から発見されている。バニラではバニリンの生合成中間体となっている。 デーキン反応によってヒドロキノンと、対応するカルボン酸に変換される。 代謝酵素として、4-ヒドロキシベンズアルデヒドデヒドロゲナーゼがニンジンから発見されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    タウロコール酸 (Taurocholic acid)は、脂肪を乳化することのできる融解性の透明な黄色の胆汁酸である。胆汁酸であるコール酸がタウリンと抱合したものである。ヒトの胆汁酸のうちの三分の一程度はこの物質である。生合成はコリルCoAとタウリンの反応である。 医薬的用法として、利胆剤や胆汁分泌促進剤として用いられている。 商業的な生産方法では、食肉産業の副生成物である牛の胆汁から作られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ニトロベンゼン (nitrobenzene) は、有機化合物で、ベンゼン環にニトロ基が置換した構造を持つ。ニトロベンゾール (nitrobenzol)、ミルバン油 (oil of mirbane) とも呼ばれる。黄色油状で甘い味覚がある。有毒で水に溶けにくい。杏仁豆腐のような、あるいは桃を腐らせたような芳香を持つ。日本法における劇物。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シュウ酸(シュウさん、蓚酸、英: oxalic acid)は、構造式 HOOC–COOH で表される、もっとも単純なジカルボン酸。二つのカルボキシ基を背中合わせにくっつけた分子である。IUPAC命名法ではエタン二酸(「二」はカタカナの「ニ」ではなく漢数字の「二」) (ethanedioic acid)。1776年、カール・ヴィルヘルム・シェーレによりカタバミ (oxalis) から初めて単離されたことから命名された。 命名の由来にもなったように、植物に多く含まれる。漢字の「蓚」はタデ科のスイバを意味し、また中国語でも植物由来の「草酸」の名を持つ。タデ科(他にギシギシ、イタドリなど)、カタバミ科、アカザ科(アカザ、ホウレンソウなど)の植物には水溶性シュウ酸塩(シュウ酸水素ナトリウムなど)が、サトイモ科(サトイモ、ザゼンソウ、マムシグサなど)の植物には不溶性シュウ酸塩(シュウ酸カルシウムなど)が含まれる。ヤマノイモ科の植物の根菜から作るとろろが肌に付くと痒みを生じるのは、シュウ酸カルシウムの針状結晶が肌に刺さって刺激を受ける為である。 カルシウムイオンと強く結合する性質(劇性)があり、体内に入るとアシドーシスに傾いた血液中でカルシウムと結合して結石などを生じる。このため毒物及び劇物取締法により劇物(毒物ではない)に指定されている。 還元性があるため、滴定によく使われる。また、染料原料や漂白剤としても用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ベンゾイミダゾール (Benzimidazole) は分子式C7H6N2で表される有機化合物で、ベンゼン環とイミダゾール環が一辺を共有して結合した複素環式化合物である。自然界において最も重要なベンゾイミダゾール化合物は、N-リボシルジメチルベンゾイミダゾールであり、ビタミンB12ではコバルトが軸方向に配位している。 一般的にはとo-フェニレンジアミンの縮合によって作られる。 C6H4(NH2)2 + HC(OCH3)3 → C6H4N(NH)CH + 3 CH3OH ベンゾイミダゾール化合物は寄生虫駆除剤や殺菌剤として生産されている。これらはチューブリンに結合し微小管の重合を阻害する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    炭酸水素塩(たんさんすいそえん、hydrogencarbonate)または重炭酸塩(じゅうたんさんえん、Bicarbonate)は炭酸水素イオンを含む、水素塩(酸性塩)の一種である。リチウムを除くアルカリ金属塩、カドミウム塩、およびアンモニウム塩などが固体の結晶として単離されているが、アルカリ土類金属その他の炭酸水素塩は、これらの炭酸塩と過剰の二酸化炭素の反応により水溶液中でのみ存在し、固体として分離しない。 アルカリ金属塩も水溶液の加熱および、固体の200℃程度の加熱により分解して炭酸塩となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    β-カロテン(ベータカロテン、ベータカロチン、β-carotene)は、植物に豊富に存在する赤橙色色素の一つ。両末端にβ環を持つ最も一般的なカロテンである。ビタミンAの前駆体(不活性型)である。テルペノイドの一つであり、水には溶けないが脂溶性は大きい。 分子構造はKarrerらによって推定された。自然界ではβ-カロテン-15,15'-モノオキシゲナーゼ(EC 1.14.99.36) の酵素反応を受ける。β-カロテノイドはゲラニルゲラニル二リン酸から生合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    タファミジス(Tafamidis)は、成人のトランスチレチンアミロイドーシス(ATTR)の疾患進行を遅らせるために使用される医薬品である。本薬は、(FAC)および家族性アミロイドポリニューロパチー(FAP)といった遺伝性のATTRと、(wtATTR、以前は老人性全身性アミロイドーシスと呼ばれていた)の治療に使用される。本薬は、トランスチレチンというタンパク質の四次構造(4量体)を安定化させる事で効果を発揮する。ATTRでは、トランスチレチン4量体がバラバラになり、神経や心臓などの組織に害を及ぼす塊(アミロイド)を形成する。経口投与で用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カルバモイルリン酸(カルバモイルリンさん、Carbamoyl phosphate)とは、生化学的に重要なアニオンである。尿素回路では、オルニチンと反応してシトルリンにする反応に関わることで過剰な窒素の体外への排出を行っている。また、ピリミジンの生合成にも関わっている。 重炭酸塩とアンモニアとリン酸から、ATPを用いて作られる。合成は、カルバモイルリン酸シンターゼにより触媒され、以下のように進む。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アルドステロン (英語: Aldosterone) は、副腎皮質の球状帯から分泌されるホルモンである。鉱質コルチコイドの一種である。1953年、シンプソンとテートによって初めて単離された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    テトラブロモビスフェノールA(Tetrabromobisphenol A、TBBPA)は、臭素系難燃剤の一種である。市販されているものは黄色を呈するが、純粋なものは白色の固体である。難燃剤としては最も一般的なものの1つである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    GDP-マンノース-3,5-エピメラーゼ(GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase、EC 5.1.3.18)は、以下の化学反応を触媒する酵素である。 GDP-マンノースGDP-L-ガラクトース 従って、この酵素の基質はのみ、生成物はのみである。 この酵素は異性化酵素、特に炭水化物及びその誘導体に作用するラセマーゼ、エピメラーゼに分類される。系統名は、GDP-マンノース-3,5-エピメラーゼ(GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase)である。 この酵素は、アスコルビン酸及びアルダル酸の代謝に関与している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    1,2,4-トリアゾール(1,2,4-Triazole)はトリアゾールと呼ばれるC2H3N3という分子式を持つ化合物の1つで、炭素原子2個と窒素原子1個からなるを持つ。1,2,4-トリアゾールは芳香族性を持つ複素環式化合物である。 フルコナゾールやイトラコナゾールなどの抗真菌薬の骨格となっている。 1,2,4-トリアゾールはイミドとアルキルヒドラジンからEinhorn-Brunner反応で、もしくはアミドとヒドラジドからPellizzari反応で合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    メチルマロン酸(メチルマロンさん、英: Methylmalonic acid)は、中央のCにメチル基が付加したマロン酸の誘導体であるジカルボン酸である。 メチルマロン酸に結合したCoAであるメチルマロニルCoAは、メチルマロニルCoAムターゼによりスクシニルCoAに変化する。この反応でビタミンB12が補因子として必要とされる。このようにしてメチルマロン酸はクレブス回路(クエン酸回路)に入り、補充反応の一端を担うことになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ビンキュリン(vinculin)は、アダプタータンパク質(adaptor protein)の1つで、細胞接着の接着装置を構成する細胞膜裏打ちタンパク質の1つである。インテグリン (integrin) が細胞骨格(cytoskeleton)のアクチンフィラメント に結合するのを仲介し、細胞接着・伸展を制御する。ビンキュリンファミリー(vinculin family)を形成している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    APC(adenomatous polyposis coli)は、ヒトではAPC遺伝子によってコードされるタンパク質である。DP2.5(deleted in polyposis 2.5)としても知られる。APCタンパク質はβ-カテニンの濃度を負に制御する調節因子であり、細胞接着に関与すると相互作用する。APC遺伝子の変異は大腸がんにつながる可能性がある。 APCはがん抑制遺伝子に分類される。がん抑制遺伝子は、癌性腫瘍につながる可能性のある、無制御な細胞増殖を防ぐ。APC遺伝子から産生されるタンパク質は、細胞の腫瘍への成長が決定されるいくつかの細胞過程で重要な役割を果たしている。APCタンパク質は、どの頻度で細胞分裂を行うか、組織内で他の細胞とどのように接着するか、細胞がどのように極性化するか、三次元構造への形態変化、また細胞が組織内をまたは組織から離れて移動するかどうかの制御を助けている。このタンパク質は細胞分裂の際の染色体数の保証も助ける。APCタンパク質は主に他のタンパク質、特に細胞接着やシグナル伝達に関与するタンパク質のとの結合によってこれらの役割をこなしている。特に、APCタンパク質によるβ-カテニンの制御は重要である(Wntシグナル経路を参照)。β-カテニンの調節によって、細胞分裂促進遺伝子の高頻度での活性化が防がれ、細胞の過剰増殖が防止されている。 ヒトのAPC遺伝子はの長腕(q)のバンドq22.2(5q22.2)に位置している。APC遺伝子はIRESを含んでいることが示されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ペンタン(pentane)とは、炭素数5つの直鎖状のアルカンである。天然ガスや石油エーテル、ガソリン等に含まれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    クロルギリン(Clorgiline)は、不可逆でA選択的なモノアミン酸化酵素阻害薬で、科学研究用途に用いられる。構造的にパルギリンと関連する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キナリザリン (quinalizarin) または、1,2,5,8-テトラヒドロキシアントラキノン (1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone) は、化学式がC14H8O6の有機化合物である。テトラヒドロキシアントラキノンの異性体のうちの一つで、4つの水素原子がヒドロキシル基に置換したアントラキノン誘導体である。 キナリザリンは、プロテインキナーゼのCK2の阻害剤で、エモジンよりも強力かつ選択的である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    バルプロ酸ナトリウム(バルプロさんナトリウム、英語: Sodium valproate、略称: VPA)とは、2-プロピルペンタン酸のナトリウム塩である。すなわち、バルプロ酸とは2-プロピルペンタン酸の慣用名である。 バルプロ酸は特異な匂いを有する。これをナトリウム塩にしたために水溶性が向上するため、水に溶け易い。体内に吸収されたバルプロ酸は、を阻害するため、におけるGABAの量を増加させて、薬理作用を発揮するとされる。ただし、バルプロ酸には他にも生理活性を有する。 バルプロ酸ナトリウムは抗てんかん薬の1つとして利用される。世界保健機関のWHOエッセンシャル・ドラッグ・リストの中にも収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ヒドロキシメチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ(hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase, HMGR)または3-ヒドロキシ-3-メチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase)は、コレステロールや他のイソプレノイドを合成するメバロン酸経路の律速酵素の一つである。この酵素には、ヒドロキシメチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ (NADPH)(EC 1.1.1.34)とヒドロキシメチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ(EC 1.1.1.88)の2種が存在し、前者は補酵素としてNADP、後者はNADが使われる。 この酵素の阻害剤はスタチンとして知られ、コレステロール降下剤として広く用いられている。 HMG-CoAレダクターゼは小胞体の膜に固定されており、7個の膜貫通ドメインを持つと長く考えられ、その活性点は細胞質基質中のカルボキシ末端ドメインに位置する。より最新の研究では、8個の膜貫通ドメインを含むことが証明されている。 ヒトではHMG-CoAレダクターゼの遺伝子は5番染色体の長腕(5q13.3-14)に位置する。この酵素はメバロン酸経路をもつ生物に普遍的に存在する。動物、植物を含む大部分の真核生物、そして一部のバクテリアにも存在している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インスリン様成長因子1(インスリンようせいちょういんし1、英: Insulin-like growth factor 1、略称: IGF-1、IGF-I)は、インスリンに類似した分子構造を持つホルモンである。小児の成長に重要な役割を果たし、成人においても同化作用を有する。ソマトメジンC(somatomedin C)とも呼ばれる。 IGF-1はヒトではIGF1遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。IGF-1は70アミノ酸からなる1本鎖ポリペプチドで、分子内に3つのジスルフィド結合を有する。IGF-1の分子量は7649である。 IGF-1の合成アナログであるは、成長障害の子供の治療に利用されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ノルアドレナリン(独: Noradrenalin、英: noradrenaline)は、化学式C8H11NO3のカテコールアミンにしてフェネチルアミンである。米国ではノルエピネフリン(norepinephrine)と称される。集中治療室や全身麻酔下手術において、重症患者の血圧を維持する上では不可欠の薬剤である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シルデナフィル(Sildenafil)は、勃起不全 (ED、男性機能不全)、および肺動脈性肺高血圧症の治療薬である。としてはファイザーのバイアグラ(Viagra) が商品名(商標)として、肺動脈性高血圧症の治療薬としてはレバチオ(Revatio)が商品名として用いられているほか、ファイザーの日本での特許切れにより、各社からの後発医薬品(ジェネリック医薬品)も存在する。投与はいずれもクエン酸塩の形態で経口にて行われる。 日本では1999年から製造と自費購入のみ認められてきたが、2022年2月に不妊治療で使われる医薬品16品を保険適用とすることが決まり、同年4月から早発排卵防止薬の「」や「」、と共に、処方許可要件を満たした医療機関から「勃起障害による男性不妊」と診断された上で不妊治療での用途に限り、バイアグラとシアリスが診療報酬適応になった。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    テトラメチルアンモニウム(Tetramethylammonium,TMA)またはテトラミンは、構造式(CH3)4N+(Me4N+)で表される最も単純な第四級アンモニウムカチオンである。中心の窒素原子に4つのメチル基が結合しており、ネオペンタンと等電子的である。正電荷を帯びており、対イオンと結合した状態でのみ単離される。一般的な塩としては、塩化テトラメチルアンモニウム、水酸化テトラメチルアンモニウム等がある。テトラメチルアンモニウム塩は、化学合成に使用され、薬理学的研究に広く用いられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセチルCoA (アセチルコエンザイムエー、アセチルコエー、Acetyl-CoA)は、アセチル補酵素Aの略で、化学式がC23H38P3N7O17Sで表される分子量が809.572 g/mol の有機化合物である。補酵素Aの末端のチオール基が酢酸とチオエステル結合したもので、主としてβ酸化やクエン酸回路、メバロン酸経路でみられる。メバロン酸経路では、テルペノイドは三分子のアセチルCoAを原料として合成される。 ヒトの体内では、消費されない過剰のアセチルCoAは、脂肪酸生合成の原料となり、中性脂肪を生成する(脂肪酸の合成の記事を参照)。そのため、アセチルCoAの代謝を抑制することで動脈硬化、高脂血症を防ぐ研究が進行中である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    チオグリコール酸(チオグリコールさん、thioglycolic acid: TGA)とは、別名メルカプト酢酸とも呼ばれているカルボン酸の一種で、激しい悪臭と刺激臭を示す無色の液体。空気中で容易に酸化してジスルフィド(HO2CH2S-SCH2CO2H)を形成する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エスシタロプラム (Escitalopram) とは、選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬 (SSRI) と呼ばれる抗うつ薬の一つである。レクサプロの商品名で販売されている。日本では2011年4月より販売されている。 エスシタロプラムは、アメリカ合衆国では90年代からあるSSRIのシタロプラムの光学異性体のうちのS体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アセタゾラミド (Acetazolamide) は、の一種である。錠剤、粉末、注射剤があり、商品名はダイアモックス(三和化学研究所)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    スペクチノマイシン(Spectinomycin)とは真正細菌のStreptomyces spectabilis によって産生されるアミノグリコシド系抗生物質であり、淋菌感染症の治療に用いられる。塩酸塩がトロビシンとして商品化されている。臀部筋肉内注射で用いられる。 WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。 スペクチノマイシンは1961年に発見された。日本では1978年5月に承認された。米国ではトロビシンは2001年に供給が中止された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    糖質コルチコイド受容体またはグルココルチコイド受容体 (Glucocorticoid Receptor; GR) あるいはNR3C1(nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1)はステロイド受容体(核内受容体)スーパーファミリーに属する分子である。リガンド非結合時においては細胞質に優位に存在する。ステロイドホルモンであるヒドロコルチゾンに対する受容体として働く一方、リガンド依存的に核内移行して転写因子としても働く。GRにはGRαとGRβの2つのスプライシングバリアントが存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ピペリジン(英語: Piperidine)は、有機化合物の1種で、6員環構造を持つ複素環式アミンである。胡椒の辛味成分ピペリンの構造中に存在し、胡椒(Piper)にちなんで名付けられた。ヘキサヒドロピリジン、ペンタメチレンイミンとも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リバーロキサバン(Rivaroxaban)は経口抗凝固薬の一つである。最初に開発されたである。商品名イグザレルト。消化管からの吸収率が高く、投与4時間後に第Xa因子の阻害効果が最大となり、効果は8〜12時間持続する。しかし第Xa活性は24時間以内では回復しないので、1日1回投与で用いられる。開発コードBAY 59-7939。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    オクタン (octane) は炭素を8個持つ飽和炭化水素の呼称である。石油(あるいはそれを分留したガソリン)中に含まれる。18種類の構造異性体が存在し、立体異性体までを考慮すると24種類になる。 IUPAC命名法によるオクタンは直鎖状 (CH3(CH2)6CH3) のn-オクタン(ノルマルオクタン、n-octane)であり、その融点は −60 ℃、沸点は 125 ℃。広義のオクタンは、C8H18 の分子式で表せるアルカンの各構造異性体をさす。 構造異性体のうち、3,4-ジメチルヘキサンはメソ体を持つ最小のアルカンである。2,2,4-トリメチルペンタン(イソオクタン)はガソリンのオクタン価の測定基準として使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ウンデカン (Undecane) は、アルカン。ヘンデカンと呼ばれることもある。159 種類の構造異性体が存在する。可燃性・揮発性があり、常温常圧で無色の液体。CAS登録番号は [1120-21-4]。 ダニの一種 (Caloglyphus rodriguezi) では、ウンデカンをフェロモンとして利用している。ほか、昆虫界、植物界に散見する物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    17-ヒドロキシプロゲステロン(17-Hydroxyprogesterone、17OHP)は、糖質コルチコイドと性ホルモンの合成過程において生産される21炭素のステロイドホルモンである。 ホルモンとして、17-ヒドロキシプロゲステロンもプロゲステロン受容体と相互作用する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    BRCA1(breast cancer susceptibility gene I、乳がん感受性遺伝子I)とは、がん抑制遺伝子のひとつ。BRCA1遺伝子の変異により、遺伝子不安定性を生じ、最終的に乳癌や卵巣癌を引き起こす()。BRCA1の転写産物であるBRCA1タンパク質は他の多数の腫瘍抑制因子とともに核内で大きな複合体を形成し、相同性による遺伝子の修復に関わっている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アクリル酸(—さん、acrylic acid)は、化学式が CH2=CHCOOH の、もっとも簡単な不飽和カルボン酸である。IUPAC命名法では、2-プロペン酸(2-propenoic acid)と表される。融点 12 ℃、沸点 141.6 ℃の無色透明の液体で、特有の刺激臭を有する。CAS登録番号は[79-10-7]。酸解離定数(pKa)は4.25、粘度は1.3 mPa s(20℃)。 水、アルコール、エーテル、クロロホルムと混和する。 アクリル酸の工業的な合成法のひとつとしては、プロピレンの二段階酸化が挙げられる。プロピレンを金属触媒存在下に酸素で酸化してアクロレインとし、さらにもう一段階の酸化によりアクリル酸とする。一段目の酸化反応は、触媒表面におけるプロピレンのアリル位水素の引き抜きと格子酸素の挿入等を経て、アクロレインが生成して完了するとされ、触媒は Bi-Mo に各種金属が添加された複合金属酸化物が用いられている。二段目の酸化反応は、アクロレインのアルデヒド基からの水素引き抜きと酸素挿入によるアクリル酸への転換反応であり、触媒はMo-V に各種金属が添加された複合金属酸化物が用いられている。 アクリル酸は適当な重合開始剤、あるいは酸素などの作用により容易に重合し、(PAA)を与える。この重合体はカルボキシル基を多数持つために非常に親水性が高い。さらに架橋を加えて網目状としたポリマーは、ナトリウム塩の形とすると高吸水性ゲルとして優れた性能を示すことから、紙おむつ用などに用いられる。 アクリル酸をメチルエステルとしたアクリル酸メチル(methyl acrylate, MA)も、(PMA)などのポリマーの原料として重要である。 毒物及び劇物取締法により劇物に指定されている。また消防法による第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    シロマジン (Cyromazine) とは、トリアジン骨格を有する昆虫成長制御剤で、殺虫剤および殺ダニ剤として使用される。メラミンのシクロプロピル誘導体であり、幼虫の神経系に作用して、幼虫の脱皮阻害作用や蛹の変態阻害作用を示す。日本ではハモグリバエ類を対象として、1996年に非食用作物 (キク、ガーベラ) で、1999年には食用作物 (ナス、トマト、カボチャ、メロン等) で農薬登録された。 獣医学領域では、畜舎・鶏舎周辺のハエ駆除用殺虫剤として使われる。産卵鶏用のラーバデックスはハエ幼虫発育抑制剤だが、餌に混ぜて鶏に与えることで鶏糞に沸くウジを駆除するというユニークな用法 (フィードスルー) が特徴である。 従来は養鶏家が人手をかけて鶏糞に薬剤を散布していたが、多大な労力がかかるにもかかわらず散布ムラにより防除が不完全になるという問題があった。これに対し、ラーバデックスではいったん鶏に食べさせることで薬剤を糞中に均等に分散させるという戦略をとることにより、防除の確実性が上がるだけでなく、給餌とハエ防除が同時に行えるので養鶏家の労力が軽減されるという合理的なものになっている。 このほか、アクアリウムにおいてはイカリムシやチョウなど外部寄生虫に対する殺虫薬として用いられる(ただし日本では、魚類に対する動物用医薬品としては認可されていない)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ベンジルペニシリン(benzylpenicillin)は、最も質の高い()ペニシリンの一種である。一般的にはペニシリンGとして知られている。ペニシリンGは胃の塩酸に対して不安定であるため、通常非経口経路で投与される。非経口で投与されるため、フェノキシメチルペニシリン (Phenoxymethylpenicillin) よりも高い組織内濃度(つまり抗微生物活性)を達成可能である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ゾレドロン酸(Zoledronic acid)またはゾレドロネート(Zoledronate)は、ビスホスホネート系製剤の1つであり白色の結晶性化合物。経静脈投与で使用される。骨粗鬆症や、悪性腫瘍の合併症としての高カルシウム血症などの治療に用いられる。日本での商品はリクラストまたはゾメタ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    FAK(focal adhesion kinase、フォーカルアドヒージョンキナーゼ、焦点接着キナーゼ、接着斑キナーゼ)またはPTK2(protein tyrosine kinase 2)は、ヒトではPTK2遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。FAKは関連プロテインキナーゼであり、細胞接着(細胞が互いにまたは周囲の環境とどのように結合するか)や拡散過程(細胞がどのように移動するか)に関与している。FAKが遮断されると、がん細胞は移動性が低下し転移能が低下することが示されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    リトナビル(Ritonavir、治験番号 ABT-538、略号RTV)は、抗レトロウイルス効果を持つの一つであり、ヒト免疫不全ウイルスやC型肝炎ウイルス感染症の治療に使用される医薬品である。ノービア、カレトラ(ロピナビルとの合剤)、ヴィキラックス(オムビタスビル、パリタプレビルとの合剤)の商品名でアッヴィから製造販売されている。 リトナビルはHAART療法に取り入れられている場合が多いが、抗ウイルス効果よりもむしろ他のプロテアーゼ阻害薬の分解抑制を期待して使用される。この阻害効果によって、他のプロテアーゼ阻害薬の血中濃度が上昇し、より少量の投与で薬効を期待することができる。この考え方の下でロピナビルとの合剤が開発されている。 オムビタスビルおよびパリタプレビルとの3剤合剤がC型肝炎の治療に用いられる。日本では、2022年2月10日に新型コロナウイルス感染症の治療薬として医薬品医療機器等法14条の3に基づき特例承認されたニルマトレルビル・リトナビル(商品名: パキロビッドパック)にもリトナビルが含まれる。 リトナビルはWHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    コビメチニブ(Cobimetinib、開発コードGDC-0973、XL-518)は抗がん剤として開発中のの一つである。BRAF阻害薬との併用でいくつかの癌の治療効果が期待されている。早期臨床試験の結果、ベムラフェニブとの併用によりBRAF V600変異陽性悪性黒色腫患者の無増悪生存期間をベムラフェニブ単剤より3.7ヶ月延長した。第III相臨床試験は2017年に完了する見込みである。2014年の臨床試験の結果を元に、米国および欧州で承認申請された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フェニルピルビン酸(Phenylpyruvic acid)は、ピルビン酸の誘導体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ドコサヘキサエン酸(ドコサヘキサエンさん、Docosahexaenoic acid、略称:DHA)は、不飽和脂肪酸のひとつで、僅かに黄色を呈する油状物質。6つの二重結合を含む22個の炭素鎖をもつカルボン酸 (22:6) の総称であるが、通常は生体にとって重要な 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 位に全てシス型の二重結合をもつ、ω-3脂肪酸に分類される化合物を指し、エイコサペンタエン酸(EPA)やドコサペンタエン酸(DPA) とともに高度不飽和脂肪酸(PUFA) とも呼ばれている。必須脂肪酸の一つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トリメトプリム(英: trimethoprim)とは、主に尿路感染症の予防や治療に使用されるの抗生物質(正確には合成抗菌薬)の一つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    チオトロピウム臭化物(Tiotropium bromide)は長時間(24時間)作用型抗コリン性気管支拡張薬であり、慢性閉塞性肺疾患(COPD)の症状軽減または気管支喘息の慢性期治療に用いられる。液剤と専用の噴霧器を組み合わせて用いる場合と、カプセルに入れた粉末を専用の器具に装填して用いる場合とがある。商品名スピリーバ。オロダテロールとの合剤(商品名スピオルト)がCOPD治療薬として承認されている。。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    フマリルアセトアセターゼまたはフマリルアセト酢酸加水分解酵素(Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase)は、ヒトではFAH遺伝子でコードされる酵素である。 この酵素は、チロシン異化経路の最後の酵素である。FAH遺伝子の欠損や変異は、1型の遺伝性チロシン血症と関連する。 この酵素は、4-フマリルアセト酢酸のフマル酸とアセト酢酸への加水分解を触媒する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ミグルスタット(Miglustat)は、海外ではゴーシェ病I型(GD1)、日本ではニーマン・ピック病C型の治療に用いられる医薬品である。商品名ブレーザベス。開発コードOGT 918。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    6-ベンジルアミノプリン(6-Benzylaminopurine、ベンジルアデニン、benzyl adenine、BAP)は、植物の成長を刺激する第一世代の合成サイトカイニンである。花を咲かせ、細胞分裂を促進することによって果実を豊富にする効果がある。また、植物の呼吸キナーゼを抑制する効果があり、ポストハーベスト農薬として使用できる。 6-ベンジルアミノプリンは植物生理学者のによって初めて合成・実験された物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    エリスロポエチン(英語: erythropoietin; 略称: EPO)とは、赤血球の産生を促進する造血因子の一つ(ホルモンともサイトカインとも)。分子量は約34000、165個のアミノ酸から構成されている。血液中のエリスロポエチン濃度は、貧血、多血症などの鑑別診断に用いられる。腎性貧血の治療に主に使用されているが、ドーピングにも使用され問題となっている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    キサンチンデヒドロゲナーゼ(xanthine dehydrogenase、XDH)は、ヒトではXDH遺伝子にコードされているタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ビオラキサンチン(Violaxanthin)は、橙色の天然のキサントフィル色素であり、パンジーなどの様々な植物に含まれている。ゼアキサンチンのエポキシド化によって合成される。食品添加物として、E番号E161eの着色料として用いられる。欧州連合やアメリカ合衆国では使用が承認されていないが、オーストラリアやニュージーランドでは承認されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    α-ケトイソ吉草酸(アルファ-ケトイソきっそうさん、α-Ketoisovaleric acid)は、アミノ酸のバリンの代謝中間体の一つ。IUPAC名は3-メチル-2-オキソブタン酸である。2-オキソ-3-メチルブタン酸とも呼ばれる。 α-ケトイソイソ吉草酸は、(EC 2.6.1.42)によってバリンから合成され、3-メチル-2-オキソブタン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(EC 1.2.4.4)によってイソブチリルCoAに変換される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    二酸化炭素(にさんかたんそ、英: carbon dioxide)は、炭素の酸化物の一つで、化学式が と表される無機化合物である。化学式から「シーオーツー」と呼ばれる。地球温暖化対策の文脈などで、「カーボンフリー」「カーボンニュートラル」など「カーボン」が使われる事があるが、これは二酸化炭素由来の炭素を意味する。 二酸化炭素は温室効果を持ち、地球の気温を保つのに必要な温室効果ガスの一つである。しかし、濃度の上昇は地球温暖化の原因となる。 地球大気中の二酸化炭素をはじめ地球上で最も代表的な炭素の酸化物であり、炭素単体や有機化合物の燃焼によって容易に生じる。気体は炭酸ガス、固体はドライアイス、液体は液体二酸化炭素、水溶液は炭酸や炭酸水と呼ばれる。 多方面の産業で幅広く使われている()。日本では高圧ガス保安法容器保安規則第十条により、二酸化炭素(液化炭酸ガス)の容器(ボンベ)の色は緑色と定められている。温室効果ガスの排出量を示すための換算指標でもあり、メタンや亜酸化窒素(一酸化二窒素)、フロンガスなどが変換される。日本では2014年度で13.6億トンが総排出量として算出された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    カプトプリル(Captopril)とはアンジオテンシン変換酵素阻害薬の一つである。アンジオテンシン変換酵素(ACE)を抑制することにより血圧を低下させる。さらにアルドステロン分泌の抑制による利尿作用を有する。高血圧、鬱血性心不全の治療に使用される。カプトプリルは初のACE阻害薬であり、新規作用機序ならびに新規開発手法の2つの意味で革新的と云われる。副作用として肺のブラジキニン増加による空咳が生じる。商品名カプトリル。経口投与薬で、1日3回服用の錠剤と1日2回服用のカプセル剤がある。 構造としては(S )-プロリン(L-プロリン)のN 置換体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ノルバリン(Norvaline)は、C5H11NO2の化学式を持つアミノ酸で、バリンの異性体である。しばしば合成的に作られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ヒドロキシプロリン(Hydroxyproline)は天然に存在する二級環状アミノ酸(かつてはイミノ酸とも呼ばれた)の一種である。略称HYP。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インドキシル硫酸(インドキシルりゅうさん、3-indoxylsulfuric acid)はインドールが硫酸化した有機化合物である。慣用名はインディゴの前駆体の配糖体と同じインディカンである。体内では、トリプトファン由来のインドールが肝臓で硫酸抱合されて合成される。尿毒症毒素の原因物質といわれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    アトラジン(Atrazine, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamine)-6-(isopropylamine)-s-triazine)はs-トリアジン環を持つ有機化合物。欧州連合では使用が禁じられているが、世界で最も多く使われる除草剤の一つ。「アトラジン」の名称以外にも商品名で呼ばれることも多い(日本ではシンジェンタから商品名「ゲザプリム®」で販売されている)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    サイクリン依存性キナーゼ1(サイクリンいぞんせいキナーゼ1、英: cyclin-dependent kinase 1、略称: CDK1)は高度に保存されたタンパク質で、セリン/スレオニンキナーゼとして機能する、細胞周期調節の主要因子である。 cell division cycle protein 2 homolog(cdc2 homolog)とも呼ばれる。出芽酵母Saccharomyces cerevsiae、分裂酵母Schizosaccharomyces pombeでよく研究されており、それぞれcdc28とcdc2遺伝子にコードされている。ヒトではCDK1はCDC2遺伝子にコードされている。CDK1はサイクリンと複合体を形成してさまざまな標的基質をリン酸化し(出芽酵母では75種類を超える基質が同定されている)、細胞周期を進行させる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    心房性ナトリウム利尿ペプチド(しんぼうせいナトリウムりにょうペプチド、英語名:Atrial Natriuretic Peptide、ANP )は、生理活性を持つアミノ酸28個からなるペプチドの1種であり、主に心房で生合成して貯蔵され、必要に応じて血液中に分泌され、ホルモンとして作用する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    トランスコルチン(Transcortin)は、αグロブリンである。ヒトにおいては、SERPINA6遺伝子でコードされる。コルチコステロイド結合グロブリン(corticosteroid-binding globulin、CBG)やセルピンA6(serpin A6)とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ブロモデオキシウリジン(英: bromodeoxyuridine、5-ブロモ-2'-デオキシウリジン(5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)、略称: BrdU)は、チミジンのアナログとなる合成ヌクレオシドである。BrdUは生体組織内で増殖中の細胞を検出するために一般的に利用されている。5-ブロモデオキシシチジンの脱アミノ化によってBrdUが形成される。 BrdUは、DNA複製中にチミジンに置き換わって新生DNA鎖に取り込まれる。そのため、BrdUが取り込まれた細胞は活発にDNA複製を行っていることを示している。BrdUが取り込まれたことを検出するためには、BrdU特異的抗体が利用される(免疫染色を参照)。抗体の結合にはDNAの変性が必要であり、通常は熱または酸による処理が行われる。 BrdUは複製に伴って娘細胞へと受け継がれる。BrdUは生体への注入後、2年以上にわたって検出可能であることが示されている。 BrdUはDNA複製時にチミジンと置き換わるため、突然変異を引き起こす可能性があり、そのためBrdUの使用は健康被害を引き起こす可能性がある。ラベリングのために使用される濃度では放射性も骨髄毒性も持たないため、がん細胞増殖のin vivo研究で広く用いられている。しかし、放射線増感剤として使用される濃度ではBrdUは骨髄抑制作用を持ち、この目的での使用は限られている。 BrdUは、チミジンのCH3基が臭素原子に置き換わった構造をしている。そのため、DNAまたはRNAを含む結晶のX線回折実験に利用することができる。臭素原子は因子としてはたらき、X線回折のisomorphous differenceを検出するのに十分な影響を与えることもできる。 BrdUは、DNAメチル化によって引き起こされた、ヒストンとの相互作用による遺伝子サイレンシングを解除する。 BrdUは、水生環境や土壌環境中の特定の炭素源に応答する微生物の同定のためにも利用される。環境試料の培養物に特定の炭素源を添加すると、それを利用できる微生物の成長が引き起こされる。こうした微生物は生育する際にDNAにBrdUを取り込む。その後、微生物叢のDNAを単離し、immunocaptureによってBrdUでラベルされたDNAを精製する。ラベルされたDNAをシーケンシングすることにより、添加された炭素源の分解に加わった微生物群を同定することができる。しかしながら、環境試料中に存在するすべての微生物が新規DNA合成によってBrdUを取り込むことができるかどうかは定かではない。そのため、炭素源に応答するもののこの技術では検出されない微生物が存在する可能性がある。さらに、この技術にはAやTに富むゲノムを持つ微生物を同定しやすいバイアスが存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    パパベリン(英:papaverine)とは血管拡張・鎮痙剤のひとつ。ケシ属の植物に含まれるイソキノリン系のアルカロイド。オピオイド作動性はない。 消化管平滑筋を弛緩させることにより、過度の消化管の緊張による腹痛を緩解させる。パパベリンは消化管平滑筋だけでなく全ての平滑筋を弛緩させるため、血栓症の治療にも使用される。副作用として多汗症や肺炎などが報告され、特に健康食品として食されるの大量摂取による肺炎(閉塞性細気管支炎)では、その主要因として考えられているが、国立医薬品食品衛生研究所等で検査したところ検出されていない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    3-メチルピリジン(3-methylpyridine)あるいは、3-ピコリン(3-picoline)は、化学式3-CH3C5H4Nで表される有機化合物。無色の液体であり、製薬や農業などの分野で利用されるピリジン誘導体を合成する際の前駆体として用いられる。ピリジンと同様、強い不快臭を持っており、弱い塩基性を示す。 日本では、消防法による危険物(第四類 第二石油類 水溶性)に指定されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ペラミビル (Peramivir) はアメリカのバイオクリスト社 (BioCryst Pharmaceuticals) 開発のインフルエンザ用抗ウイルス薬である。日本での商品名は「ラピアクタ」。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    クロルゾキサゾン(英: chlorzoxazone)は、ベンゾオキサゾール系筋弛緩剤の1種であり、中枢神経系に作用することで筋弛緩をもたらす。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    インダゾール(Indazole、別名:ベンズピラゾール、イソインダゾン)は2員環複素環式芳香族有機化合物の一つである。 インダゾール誘導体は様々な生物学的活性を有している。 インダゾール骨格は天然成分にはほとんど見られない。アルカロイドの一種(ニゲリシン(Nigericin)とは別)、ニゲグラニン(Nigeglanine)、(Nigellidine)に見られる。ニゲリシンはブラッククミン、ニオイクロタネソウ等と呼ばれる植物(学名:Nigella sativa L.)から単離された。ニゲグラニンは学名: freynと呼ばれる植物の抽出液から得られた。 で2H-インダゾールを合成できる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ブタン (butane, 英語発音: [ˈbjuːteɪn] ビューテイン) は、炭化水素の一種で、炭素4個が直鎖状に連なったアルカンである。n-ブタンとも呼ばれる。無色不快臭であり、常温・常圧で気体である。構造異性体としてイソブタン(2-メチルプロパン、iso-ブタン)があり、これらは異性体を持つアルカンでは最も小さい。可燃性物質であり、圧縮して液化した状態で運搬、利用される。天然には、石油や天然ガスの中に存在する。 1849年にエドワード・フランクランドによって発見された。名前の由来は酪酸の"but"にギリシア語における数字の末尾"ane"をつけたもの。 n-ブタンの爆発限界は 1.9~8.5vol%(空気中)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making, and is added to carbonated beverages like seltzer and beer for effervescence. It has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth, but at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

    ミリスチン酸(ミリスチンさん、myristic acid)は、動物性・植物性脂肪中に広く見られる飽和脂肪酸である。ヤシ油、パーム油に多い。を持ち、それぞれ 53.8 °Cと約 58 °C である。IUPAC系統名はテトラデカン酸(tetradecanoic acid)。 ミリスチン酸のナトリウム塩であるミリスチン酸ナトリウムは石鹸の中で特に起泡性がよく、改質剤として石鹸やシャンプーに添加される。また乳化剤としてローションなどにも用いられる。 亜鉛塩のミリスチン酸亜鉛は化粧品の潤滑剤、増粘剤、安定剤として口紅、アイシャドウ、ファンデーションなどに用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Carbon_dioxide)

    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 417 ppm (about 0.04%) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase. As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth. Its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. CO2 is released from organic materials when they decay or combust, such as in forest fires. Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth. Carbon dioxide is 53% more dense than dry air, but is long lived and thoroughly mixes in the atmosphere. About half of excess CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are absorbed by land and ocean carbon sinks. These sinks can become saturated and are volatile, as decay and wildfires result in the CO2 being released back into the atmosphere. CO2 is eventually sequestered (stored for the long term) in rocks and organic deposits like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Sequestered CO2 is released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels or naturally by volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and when carbonate rocks dissolve in water or react with acids. CO2 is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is also a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year). The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. It is a byproduct of fermentation of sugars in br