Carbon cycle

  • carbon cycle
  • The cycle of carbon in the biosphere, in which plants convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds that are consumed by plants and animals, and the carbon is returned to the biosphere in inorganic form by processes of respiration and decay.
Abstract from DBPedia
    The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon is the main component of biological compounds as well as a major component of many minerals such as limestone. Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to make Earth capable of sustaining life. It describes the movement of carbon as it is recycled and reused throughout the biosphere, as well as long-term processes of carbon sequestration to and release from carbon sinks. Carbon sinks in the land and the ocean each currently take up about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions each year. Humans have disturbed the biological carbon cycle for many centuries by modifying land use, and moreover with the recent industrial-scale mining of fossil carbon (coal, petroleum and gas extraction, and cement manufacture) from the geosphere. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had increased nearly 52% over pre-industrial levels by 2020, forcing greater atmospheric and Earth surface heating by the Sun. The increased carbon dioxide has also increased the acidity of the ocean surface by about 30% due to dissolved carbon dioxide, carbonic acid and other compounds, and is fundamentally altering marine chemistry. The majority of fossil carbon has been extracted over just the past half century, and rates continue to rise rapidly, contributing to human-caused climate change. The largest consequences to the carbon cycle, and to the biosphere which critically enables human civilization, are still set to unfold due to the vast yet limited inertia of the Earth system. Restoring balance to this natural system is an international priority, described in both the Paris Climate Agreement and Sustainable Development Goal 13.

    炭素循環(たんそじゅんかん、英: carbon cycle)とは、地球上の生物圏、岩石圏、水圏、大気圏の間で炭素が交換される生物地球化学的な循環のこと。炭素循環は、一般に上の4つの保管庫(リザーバー)、具体的には大気、陸域生物圏(陸水系は普通ここに含まれる)、海洋、堆積物(化石燃料を含む)と、その間を相互に移動する経路で成り立っている。年間の炭素の移動は、リザーバー間で起こる様々な化学的、物理学的、地質学的、生物学的なプロセスを経て行われる。地球表層付近での最も大きな炭素の保管場所は海洋である。 全球の炭素収支は炭素リザーバーの間、もしくは特定の循環(特に大気 - 海洋間)での炭素交換のバランス(吸収と放出)で示される。炭素収支を吟味することで、リザーバーが二酸化炭素の吸収源となっているのか発生源となっているのかを判断することができる。


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