• cliff
  • A steep coastal declivity which may or may not be precipitous, the slope angle being dependent partly on the jointing, bedding and hardness of the materials from which the cliff has been formed, and partly on the erosional processes at work. Where wave attack is dominant the cliff-foot will be rapidly eroded and cliff retreat will take place, especially in unconsolidated materials such as clays, sands, etc., frequently leaving behind an abrasion platform at the foot of the cliff.
Abstract from DBPedia
    In geography and geology, a cliff is an area of rock which has a general angle defined by the vertical, or nearly vertical. Cliffs are formed by the processes of weathering and erosion, with the effect of gravity. Cliffs are common on coasts, in mountainous areas, escarpments and along rivers. Cliffs are usually formed by rock that is resistant to weathering and erosion. Sedimentary rocks most likely to form cliffs include sandstone, limestone, chalk, and dolomite. Igneous rocks such as granite and basalt also often form cliffs. An escarpment (or scarp) is a type of cliff, formed by the movement of a geologic fault or landslides, or maybe by rock slides by falling rock which biologically changes the differential erosion of rock layers of selectioning or deforming hardness. Most cliffs have some form of scree slope at their base. In arid areas or under high cliffs, they are generally exposed jumbles of fallen rock. In areas of higher moisture, a soil slope may obscure the talus. Many cliffs also feature tributary waterfalls or rock shelters. Sometimes a cliff peters out at the end of a ridge, with mushroom rocks or other types of rock columns remaining. Coastal erosion may lead to the formation of sea cliffs along a receding coastline. The Ordnance Survey distinguishes between around most cliffs (continuous line along the topper edge with projections down the face) and outcrops (continuous lines along lower edge).

    崖(がけ、がい)とは、山や岸(海岸・河岸・湖岸)などの、険しく切り立った所。地表の高度が急変する部分の急斜面との定義もできる。山腹の崖を日本語ではほき(崖、歩危)、そわ(岨)、そば(岨)ともいうが、古語の趣がある。また埼玉県などの小字名などに残っているはけ「岾」や「坫」や「土偏に赤」などと表記も川辺の崖である。垂直かそれに迫るほど切り立った崖は、古来の日本語で切岸/切り岸(きりぎし、きりきし)という。しかし現代語では断崖(だんがい)ということが多い。懸崖(けんがい)、絶崖(ぜつがい)ともいう。また、これらの同義語として、切り立った状態を壁に譬えた絶壁(ぜっぺき)があり、断崖に絶壁を合わせて断崖絶壁という強調表現もある。 英語では「崖」全般を "cliff"、「断崖」を "escarpment" といい、日本語では前者の音写形「クリフ」が外来語として通用する。レッドクリフなど 日本の宅地造成規制法施行令の1条2項によれば「地表面が水平面に対し30度を超える角度をなす土地」としている。