Nitrous oxide

prefLabel
  • Nitrous Oxide
definition
  • A colorless gas, made up of two atoms of univalent nitrogen and one atom of oxygen, N2O. In the ocean, it is formed as a minor product of bacterial nitrification and denitrification.  
inScheme
broader
Abstract from DBPedia
    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    RETはの細胞外シグナル伝達分子を結合する受容体型チロシンキナーゼであり、ヒトではRET遺伝子にコードされる。RET遺伝子の機能喪失型変異はヒルシュスプルング病の発症と関係しており、機能獲得型変異は、多発性内分泌腺腫症2A型と2B型を含む、さまざまなタイプのがんの発症と関係している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    trans-グルタコン酸 (trans-glutaconic acid) は、化学式がHO2CCH=CHCH2CO2Hの有機化合物である。無色の固体で、対応する飽和化合物はグルタル酸である。エステルのときはグルタコナートと呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    meta-クレゾール、または3-メチルフェノールは、化学式がCH3C6H4(OH)で表される有機化合物。無色透明で粘性のある液体で、様々な化合物の原料となる。フェノールの誘導体であり、異性体にとがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カプリル酸(カプリルさん、caprylic acid)は、炭素数8の直鎖状脂肪酸で、IUPAC系統名はオクタン酸 (octanoic acid) である。天然にはココナッツや母乳などに含まれる。常温常圧においては、弱い不快な腐敗臭を持つ油状の液体である。なお、水にはほとんど溶けない。 工業的には香料として用いられるエステルの合成や染料の製造に利用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トランスサイレチンまたはトランスチレチン(英: transthyretin、略称: TTR)は、甲状腺ホルモンサイロキシン(T4)とレチノールを肝臓へ運搬する、血清または脳脊髄液中の運搬体タンパク質である。トランスサイレチンという名称は、その機能に由来する(transports thyroxine and retinol)。トランスサイレチンは肝臓から血中へ分泌され、脈絡叢から脳脊髄液へ分泌される。 TTRは以前はプレアルブミン(prealbumin、thyroxine-binding prealbumin、略称: TBPA)と呼ばれていた。これはTTRが電気泳動ゲル中でアルブミンよりも速く泳動されるためである。 トランスサイレチンは、に位置するTTR遺伝子によってコードされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シクロペンタノール(cyclopentanol)は環状アルコールの一つ。 脱水させるとシクロペンテンと水を生じる。 消防法に定める第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ルテオリン(Luteolin)は、フラボンの1つである。他のフラボノイドと同様に、黄色の結晶状になる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    タクロリムス (tacrolimus) は、23員環マクロライド・マクロラクタム構造を持つ免疫抑制剤の一種で、臓器移植または骨髄移植を行った患者の拒絶反応を抑制する薬剤である。またアトピー性皮膚炎に対する塗布剤、関節リウマチ治療薬としても用いられる。いずれもハイリスク薬である。類似の薬剤としてはシクロスポリン等が知られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    プレグナンX受容体(プレグナンXじゅようたい、英: pregnane X receptor、略称: PXR)は、ヒトではNR1I2遺伝子によってコードされるタンパク質である。SXR(steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor)、NR1I2(nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2)の名称でも知られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エイコサン(Icosane、別名イコサン、アイコサン 英:Eicosane)は、炭素数が20のアルカン(飽和炭化水素)に分類される有機化合物である。n-エイコサンの場合、構造式は CH3(CH2)18CH3。異性体の数は366319。n-エイコサンは、ジデシルとも呼ばれる。 エイコサンは、引火点が高くて燃料には不適であり、石油化学工業的にはほとんど用途がない。なお引火点は186.5℃である。n-エイコサンは蝋燭に含まれる成分で最も炭素鎖の短い化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジヒドロ葉酸レダクターゼ(dihydrofolate reductase、DHFR)は、NADPHを電子供与体としてジヒドロ葉酸をテトラヒドロ葉酸に還元する酵素である。ヒトではDHFR遺伝子にコードされている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ダサチニブ(dasatinib)は、BCR-ABLをはじめとした複数のチロシンキナーゼを標的とした、分子標的治療薬であるチロシンキナーゼ阻害薬(Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor:TKI)としてブリストル・マイヤーズ スクイブ社により開発された抗悪性腫瘍剤(抗がん剤)である。投与は水和物で行われる。慢性骨髄性白血病 (CML)、および既存の治療に抵抗性または不耐容のフィラデルフィア染色体陽性急性リンパ性白血病 (Ph+ALL) の治療に用いられる。製造・販売元はブリストル・マイヤーズで、大塚製薬がプロモーション提携している。商品名はスプリセル (Sprycel) 。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジチオエリトリトール (dithioerythritol, DTE) とは、四炭糖エリトロースの硫黄誘導体のひとつ。エリトリトールの両端のヒドロキシ基がチオール基に変わったもので、メソ体となっている。ジチオトレイトール (DTT) のエピマーにあたる。分子式は C4H10O2S2。 DTT と同様に、DTE は優れた還元剤である。DTE の標準還元電位は DTT ほど負側ではない、すなわち還元力は DTT に及ばない。これはおそらく酸化を受けて生じる環状のジスルフィドについて、ヒドロキシ基どうしに立体反発があるためと考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    パロモマイシン(Paromomycin)はアメーバ赤痢、ジアルジア症、リーシュマニア症、サナダムシ感染症などいくつかの寄生虫感染症の治療に用いられる剤である。妊娠中のアメーバ赤痢やジアルジア症の一次治療に使用される。それ以外の場合は一般的に二次治療に用いられる。投与法は経口、皮膚への塗布、筋肉注射である。 経口薬による主な副作用は、食欲不振、嘔吐、腹痛、下痢などがあげられる。塗布薬による副作用は、ゆみ、赤み、水ぶくれなどがあげられる。注射薬による副作用は、発熱、肝臓病、難聴があげられる。授乳中のヒトへの投与は安全とされる。パロモマイシンはアミノグリコシド系抗生物質に属する薬剤であり、細菌のタンパク質合成を阻止することにより微生物を死滅する。 パロモマイシンは1950年代にから発見され、1960年に医薬品として使われるようになった。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されており、最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。パロモマイシンは後発医薬品として入手できる。 2007年時点のインドでの注射型による一貫の治療にかかる費用は£4.19~£8.38ポンドである。2015年時点の米国での一般的な一貫の治療にかかる費用は$200米ドルである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセトアミド (acetamide) とは有機化合物の一種で、酢酸とアンモニアが脱水縮合した構造を持つアミドである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リファブチン(Rifabutin, Rfb)は結核の治療に用いられる 抗生物質であり、マイコバクテリウム・アビウム・コンプレックス(Mycobacterium avium complex、MAC)症の予防と治療にも用いられる。一般的にリファンピシンが許容できないを服用しているHIV/エイズ患者に用いられる。活性結核にはその他の抗酸菌症治療薬と共に使用される。多剤耐性結核に曝露した場合の潜在的結核に対しては単剤で使用される。 主な副作用は腹痛、吐き気、発疹、頭痛、好中球減少症である。その他の副作用は筋肉痛やぶどう膜炎である。妊娠中の患者への悪影響は報告されていないものの調査もされていない。リファブチンは(Rifamycin)に属する医薬品である。作用機序は不明確である。 リファブチンは1992年にアメリカで医薬品として承認された。日本では2008年7月に承認された。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されている最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。開発途上国での卸値は1か月分で約$30米ドルである。米国での1か月の治療のかかる薬の値段は$200米ドル以上である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセトヒドロキサム酸(アセトヒドロキサムさん、またはN-ヒドロキシアセトアミド、英: Acetohydroxamic acid、AHAとも略記される)は、細菌や植物のウレアーゼに対する強力かつ不可逆的な酵素阻害剤であり、尿路感染症の治療に用いられる。分子構造は尿素に類似するが、ウレアーゼによる加水分解を受けない。物理的な性質として、融点は92℃。常温では白色ないしわずかに薄い黄色の結晶又は粉末である。 米国では1983年に「ストルバイト結石」の予防薬として希少疾病医薬品に指定された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ラウリン酸(ラウリンさん、英語: lauric acid)は炭素数12の飽和脂肪酸である。IUPAC系統名は ドデカン酸 (dodecanoic acid) である。ココナッツオイルやヤシ油に含まれる主な酸で、抗菌活性を持つと考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シプロフロキサシン (英語: ciprofloxacin、略称:CPFX) とは、ニューキノロン系の抗生物質のひとつ。バイエルよりシプロキサン、シプロの商品名で販売されているほか、後発医薬品も存在する。フッ素を持ち、フルオロキノロン薬に分類される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アルデヒドデヒドロゲナーゼ2 (2型アルデヒド脱水素酵素、アルデヒド脱水素酵素2、英語: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2; ALDH2)は上に存在する遺伝子、またその遺伝子にコードされているタンパク質である。ヒトにおいて19遺伝子存在するアルデヒドデヒドロゲナーゼ遺伝子の1つであり、コードしているALDH2タンパク質はヒトの肝臓を中心に様々な組織、細胞においてエタノールの代謝産物であるアセトアルデヒドを含む反応性アルデヒドの酸化および無毒化に重要な働きをしている酵素である。 ALDH2遺伝子の主な遺伝子多型として正常型のALDH2*1と不活性型のALDH2*2が知られている。モンゴロイド以外の人種のほとんどは正常型アリルのみを持つが、モンゴロイドの約50%は変異型アリルを持っていることが知られており、不活性型ALDH2*2がいわゆる「お酒に弱い体質」の原因の1つとされている。また、毒性化学物質の解毒能に大きく関わっていること、基質が日常生活にありふれて存在することからALDH2遺伝子多型は衛生学を含めた医学分野全体において重要な多型であると考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ミフェプリストン(英語: mifepristone、別名:RU-486)は、妊娠中に中絶を引き起こすために、通常ミソプロストールと組み合わせて使用される薬である。この薬の組み合わせは、妊娠初期63日では97%有効である。妊娠中期にも効果がある。効果は、使用後2週間で確認する必要がある。経口で摂取する。一般的な副作用には、腹痛、疲労感、膣からの出血などがある。深刻な副作用には、膣からの大量の出血、細菌感染、妊娠が中断しなかった場合の先天性欠損症などがある。 ミフェプリストンは、(プロゲストーゲンの抑制剤)である。抗プロゲストーゲンは、プロゲステロンの効果をブロックし、子宮頸部を開きやすくし、ミソプロストールに晒されたときに子宮の収縮を促進することで機能する仕組みである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    2-イソプロピル-3-メトキシピラジン(英: 2-Isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine)は、化学式C8H12N2Oで表されるピラジンの誘導体の一種である。IPMPとも略記される。2-イソブチル-3-メトキシピラジン同様、嗅覚閾値0.002ppbと非常に強力な匂いを持つ。 消防法に定める第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    4-ニトロアニリン、または p-ニトロアニリン(パラニトロアニリン) は、有機化合物のひとつで、ベンゼンのパラ位の水素がアミノ基とニトロ基が置き換わった構造を持つ。色素や医薬品合成の中間体、酸化防止剤、ガソリンのガム状化防止剤、家禽の医薬品、腐食防止剤としての用途がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセトアセチルCoA(アセトアセチルコエー、アセトアセチルコエンザイムエー)は、メバロン酸経路においてHMG-CoAの前駆物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    2,4,6-トリブロモフェノール(2,4,6-Tribromophenol, TBP)は、フェノールの臭素化誘導体である。殺菌剤、木材保存剤、難燃剤生成の中間体として用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    N-アセチルグルコサミン(N-アセチル-D-グルコサミン、GlcNAc、NAG)は、グルコースの2位ヒドロキシル基がアセチルアミノ基に置換された単糖である。化学的にはグルコサミンの2位アミノ基をアセチル化することで容易に調製できる。いくつかの生化学的機構にとって重要な物質である。 GlcNAcは細菌の細胞壁の生体高分子の一部を構成している。そこではGlcNAcとN-アセチルムラミン酸 (MurNAc) が交互ユニットを形成しており、MurNAcの乳酸残基にテトラペプチドが結合している。この層をなしている構造はペプチドグリカンと呼ばれている。 GlcNAcは、昆虫、甲殻類、線虫など脱皮動物の外被の基質を構成しているキチン質のモノマーでもある。また、GlcNAcは疼痛の経路において非定型的な神経伝達物質として作用するとも考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ガラクトース(galactose)はアルドヘキソースに分類される単糖の一種であり、Galと略記されることがある。乳製品や甜菜、ガム、および粘液で見出される他、ヒトの体内でも合成され各組織で糖脂質や糖タンパク質の一部を形成する。 エネルギーとなる食物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    N-メチル-2-ピロリドン (N-methylpyrrolidone、NMP) はラクタム構造を含む 5員環の構造を持つ有機化合物で、極性溶媒のひとつである。別名は N-メチルピロリドン、N-メチルピロリジン-2-オン、1-メチル-2-ピロリドン、N-メチル-2-ピロリジノン (N-methylpyrrolidinone)、M-Pyrol などである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エリスリトール(Erythritol)とは、化合物および糖アルコール(Sugar Alcohol)の一種である。食品添加物や砂糖の代わりに使われる。トウモロコシを原料に、酵素を用いて発酵させて製造する。化学式は、C4H10O4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH で、立体異性体(Stereoisomer)の一つである。 ショ糖(砂糖の主成分であるスクロース, Sucrose)の60~70%の甘みを持ち、砂糖と違ってカロリーはほとんど無く、血糖値には影響を与えず、虫歯の原因になることも無い。また、インスリン(Insulin)の分泌も刺激しない。 「エリトリトール」とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセトン (acetone) は有機溶媒として広く用いられる有機化合物で、もっとも単純な構造のケトンである。IUPAC命名法では プロパン-2-オン (propan-2-one) あるいは単にプロパノン。両親媒性の無色の液体で、水、アルコール類、クロロホルム、エーテル類、ほとんどの油脂をよく溶かす。蒸気圧が20 ℃において24.7 kPaと高いことから、常温で高い揮発性を有し、強い引火性がある。ジメチルケトンとも表記される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スペルミン (spermine) は、化学式 C10H26N4 で表されるポリアミンの一種。IUPAC命名法では N,N'-ビス(3-アミノプロピル)ブタン-1,4-ジアミン。融点 26–30 ℃、沸点 150 ℃ (5 mmHg) の固体。 1678年、アントニ・ファン・レーウェンフックにより精液中からリン酸塩として発見され、1888年、アルベルト・ラーデンブルクにより精液 (sperm) から命名された。 体内ではオルニチンなどから生合成されると考えられている。細胞の新陳代謝に関わるDNAと相互作用し、その遺伝情報の読み出しなどに密接に関わる重要な化合物でもある。DNAのらせん構造を安定化させる作用が有ると考えられており、核タンパク質の精製時などにも利用される。 また、スペルミンは精液に多く含まれ、その臭いの元となる化合物でもあるが、実際には精液の臭いはスペルミンの分解物によるものと考えられている。同様の化合物にはスペルミジンがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キサンチン (xanthine) はプリン塩基の一種で、ほとんどの体組織や体液に見られる有機化合物である。 キサンチンは生体内でプリン化合物が分解したときに生じ、キサンチンデヒドロゲナーゼ(キサンチンオキシダーゼ)の作用により尿酸へと変えられる。遺伝子疾患の一種のでは、このキサンチンオキシダーゼが不足してキサンチンから尿酸への変換が滞ってしまう。 有機合成では、グアニンの希硫酸溶液に亜硝酸ナトリウムを作用させるとキサンチンが得られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アトルバスタチン(Atorvastatin)は、リピトール(Lipitor)などの商品名で販売されている高リスクの心血管疾患の予防と異常な脂質レベルの治療に用いられるスタチン薬である。スタチンは、心血管疾患の予防の一次治療に用いられる医薬品である。投与法は経口である。 一般的な副作用には、関節痛、下痢、胸やけ、吐き気、筋肉痛などがあげられる。重度の副作用には、横紋筋融解症、肝臓障害、糖尿病などがあげられる。妊娠中の人への投与により胎児に害を及ぼす可能性がある。 すべてのスタチンと同様に、アトルバスタチンの作用機序は、肝臓でのコレステロールの生成するために働く酵素であるHMG-CoAレダクターゼを阻害することによって効果がある。 アトルバスタチンは1986年に特許認可され、1996年に米国で医薬品として承認された。日本では2000年3月に承認された。後発医薬品として入手でき、比較的に低価格で購入できる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    クリンダマイシンは、リンコマイシン系の抗生物質。 商品名としては先発品にダラシン、ダラシンTゲル、ミドシンなどがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フルフェナム酸(Flufenamic acid)とは、フェナム酸系の非ステロイド性抗炎症薬の1種であり、2-{(3-トリフルオロメチルフェニル)-アミノ}-安息香酸のことである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コプロポルフィリノーゲンIII (coproporphyrinogen III) は、ポルフィリン代謝において、ウロポルフィリノーゲンIIIからウロポルフィリノーゲンデカルボキシラーゼによって合成され、コプロポルフィリノーゲンオキシダーゼによってプロトポルフィリノーゲンIXに変換される物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    デオキシアデノシン一リン酸(デオキシアデノシンいちリンさん、Deoxyadenosine monophosphate、dAMP)はアデノシン三リン酸の誘導体で、2'位のヒドロキシ基と2つのリン酸基が除かれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    DPP-4(Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4、EC3.4.14.5)とは腸管ホルモンであるインクレチンの不活化を行う酵素(セリンプロテアーゼ)であり、細胞膜上をはじめ可溶性タンパク質として血液中にも存在している。インクレチンは食後の血糖値上昇に伴い腸上皮細胞から分泌され、中でもから分泌されるGIPとから分泌されるGLP-1が注目されている。これらは膵臓β細胞表面の受容体に結合してインスリン分泌促進およびグルカゴンの分泌抑制により血糖値降下作用を示す。DPP-4はT細胞などの免疫系細胞表面にもCD26として発現して分化マーカーとされている。アデノシンデアミナーゼ(ADA)と結合して細胞内情報伝達を調節する働きも有しているため、アデノシンデアミナーゼ結合タンパク質(ADABP)とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カテコール (catechol) は、フェノール類の一種で、ベンゼン環上のオルト位に 2個のヒドロキシ基を有する有機化合物。ポリフェノールに含まれる構造として知られる。ピロカテコール (pyrocatechol) とも呼ばれる。位置異性体にレゾルシノール、ヒドロキノンがある。日本法の劇物。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ウラン(独: Uran [uˈraːn], 新ラテン語: uranium 英語: [jʊˈreɪniəm])とは、原子番号92の元素。元素記号は U。ウラニウムともいう。アクチノイドに属する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    顆粒球マクロファージコロニー刺激因子(granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor;GM-CSF)またはコロニー刺激因子2(colony stimulating factor 2;CSF2)は、マクロファージ、T細胞、肥満細胞、ナチュラルキラー細胞、内皮細胞、線維芽細胞などから分泌される単量体の糖タンパク質であり、サイトカインとして機能する。 好中球の増殖と成熟を特異的に促進する顆粒球コロニー刺激因子とは異なり、GM-CSFはより多くの種類の細胞に作用する。 この様に主に細胞性免疫の主役である白血球(顆粒球、単球)の分化誘導作用をもつ為、免疫賦活や骨髄刺激に用いられる事もある。Th細胞等が産生している事が知られている。 天然由来GM-CSFの類縁物質医薬品はやと呼ばれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コルチゾール(Cortisol)は、副腎皮質ホルモンである糖質コルチコイドの一種であり、医薬品としてヒドロコルチゾン (hydrocortisone) とも呼ばれる。炭水化物、脂肪、およびタンパク代謝を制御し、生体にとって必須のホルモンである。3種の糖質コルチコイドの中で最も生体内量が多く、糖質コルチコイド活性の約95%はこれによる。ストレスによっても分泌が亢進される。分泌される量によっては、血圧や血糖レベルを高め、免疫機能の低下や不妊をもたらす。 日本薬局方医薬品としてはヒドロコルチゾンの名称で収載される、ステロイド系抗炎症薬(SAID)の1つとして臨床使用される。ステロイド系抗炎症薬は炎症反応を強力に抑制し、炎症の全ての過程に作用する。急性炎症、慢性炎症、自己免疫疾患、アレルギー性疾患、ショック、痛風、急性白血病、などの治療に使用される。、クッシング症候群、胃潰瘍などの副作用が現れる場合もある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    18-クラウン-6(18-crown-6)は、分子式 [C2H4O]6、IUPAC名 1,4,7,10,13,16-ヘキサオキサシクロオクタデカンで表される有機化合物である。本化合物はクラウンエーテルの一種である。クラウンエーテル類は、いくつかの金属カチオンを中心の空洞に包接する。18-クラウン-6は特にカリウムカチオンに対して親和性を示す。クラウンエーテル類の開発の功績により、チャールズ・ペダーセンは1987年のノーベル化学賞を受賞した。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フーリンはタンパク質であり、ヒトではFURIN遺伝子にコードされている。その遺伝子は、として知られているがん遺伝子の上流にあるので、FUR(FES Upstream Region)と呼ばれ、そのためそのタンパク質はフーリン(furin)と名付けられた。フーリンはPACE(Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme)としても知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルコキナーゼ(英: glucokinase、EC 2.7.1.2)は、グルコースからグルコース-6-リン酸へのリン酸化を促進する酵素である。ヒトや他の脊椎動物の大部分では、グルコキナーゼは肝臓と膵臓の細胞で発現している。各器官においてグルコースのセンサーとして機能することで炭水化物の代謝調節に重要な役割を果たし、食事後や絶食時などのグルコースレベルの上昇や低下に応答して代謝や細胞機能の変化を開始させる。この酵素の遺伝子の変異は、一般的でない病態の糖尿病や低血糖症を引き起こす。 グルコキナーゼはヘキソキナーゼのアイソザイムであり、他の3つのヘキソキナーゼと相同性を示す。ヘキソキナーゼはグルコースからグルコース-6-リン酸へのリン酸化を媒介し、これはグリコーゲン合成と解糖系の双方の第一段階である。グルコキナーゼのグルコースに対する親和性は他のヘキソキナーゼよりも低い。他の3つのヘキソキナーゼはほとんどの組織や器官で解糖系やグリコーゲン合成に重要な役割を果たすのに対し、グルコキナーゼの活性はいくつかの細胞種に限られている。この低い親和性のため、生理的条件下におけるグルコキナーゼの活性はグルコース濃度によって大きく変動する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    副腎皮質刺激ホルモン放出ホルモン(ふくじんひしつしげき—ほうしゅつ—、corticotropin-releasing hormone, CRH)とは、ヒトのストレス反応に関するペプチドホルモンの一つ。Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, 副腎皮質刺激ホルモン放出因子)と呼ばれることもある。主な機能は、副腎皮質刺激ホルモン (ACTH) の分泌を促進させることである。ストレスに反応して視床下部(PVN)から分泌され、視床下部の底部にある正中隆起の血管網に放出され、下垂体門脈を通って下垂体前葉に到達する。 下垂体が視床下部によって調節されている可能性は、1950年代に Geoffrey W. Harris によって提唱されていた。視床下部から分離され、培養状態に置かれた前葉細胞は副腎皮質刺激能が低下するが、これは視床下部抽出物により回復する。ロジェ・ギルマンは、甲状腺刺激ホルモン放出ホルモンの抽出の前に、最初この因子の抽出を試みたが、1955年から7年もかけて数十万頭にも及ぶ家畜の脳を用いても果たせなかった。1981年になってWylie W. Valeらがヒツジの視床下部から単離して構造を決定した。ヒトおよびラットのCRHはアミノ酸配列が同じで、いずれも41アミノ酸残基から成り、C末端はアミド構造であることが知られている。 CRHの産生にはアルツハイマー病や大うつ病との関連が観察されており、に起因する視床下部コルチコトロピン欠損症は、低血糖症など複数の致命的な代謝的影響を及ぼしうる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スルファニルアミド(SulfanilamideまたはSulphanilamide)は、スルホンアミド系抗生物質の1つである。化学的には、パラ位にスルホンアミド基を有するアニリン誘導体である。粉末のスルファニルアミドは、第二次世界大戦中に連合国側で感染予防に用いられ、それ以前と比較して劇的に死亡率を低下させた。現代では戦場では他の抗生物質に取って代わられているが、膣真菌感染症には今でも用いられる。 “スルファニルアミド”という語は、分子中に 4-アミノベンゼンスルホンアミド 構造を有することを表現するために今でも用いられている。例) * フロセミド ― ループ利尿薬の1つ。 * スルファジアジン ― 抗生物質の1つ。 * スルファメトキサゾール ― 抗生物質の1つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キニジン(英: Quinidine)は、キナ(Cinchona )属の樹皮から産生されるアルカロイドであり、抗不整脈薬の一つである。抗不整脈薬の分類であるVaughan Williams分類ではIa群であり、ナトリウムイオンチャネルを抑制することにより活動電位の最大立ち上がり速度を低下させ、伝導速度を遅らせる作用を持つ。また、カリウムイオンチャネル抑制作用、カルシウムイオンチャネル遮断作用も持つ。キニーネの鏡像異性体(エナンチオマー)に相当する。キニーネが左旋性、キニジンが右旋性である。 ヒト以外では、小動物やウマの心室性不整脈、急性心房細動などの治療に用いられる。ネコでは経口投与は原則として行わない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カテプシンK(略称CTSK)は 、CTSK遺伝子によってエンコードされているシステインプロテアーゼ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ウアバイン(英: ouabain)は、強心配糖体のひとつ。ソマリ族が毒矢の毒の原料として用いていたキョウチクトウ科の(Strophanthus)の種子に含まれる。名称はソマリ語で「矢毒」を意味する"waabaayo"のフランス語表記"ouabaïo"による。別名は G-ストロファンチン(g-strophanthin)、CAS登録番号 は [630-60-4]。 ウアバインのアグリコン(非糖部)はウアバゲニン(ouabagenin、またはg-straphanthidin)。 細胞膜に存在するNa+/K+-ATPアーゼを阻害することにより心筋細胞内Ca2+濃度を上昇させ、収縮力を増大させる。 医学実験においてNa+/K+-ATPアーゼのブロックに用いるほか、ドイツとフランスでは強心剤として用いる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ホスカルネット(Foscarnet)とは、抗ウイルス薬の一つ。ギ酸にリン酸が置換した構造を持つ。サイトメガロウイルス(CMV)感染症の治療に用いられる。商品名はホスカビル、ノーベルファーマ製造販売。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メラトニン(英: Melatonin)は、動物、植物、微生物に存在する内因性ホルモンであり、また化学的にN-アセチル-5-メトキシトリプタミン (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) として知られる。日本では、これまで公に小児に対して使用できる睡眠薬がなかったが、2020年に商品名メラトベルで処方箋医薬品として「小児期の神経発達症に伴う入眠困難の改善」の適応で初めて承認された。動物では、メラトニンの血中濃度は1日の周期で変化しており、それぞれの生物学的な機能における概日リズムによる同調を行っている。メラトニンによる多くの生物学的な効果は、の活性を通して生成され、他にも広範囲にわたる強力な抗酸化物質としての役割によって、特に核DNAやミトコンドリアDNAを保護する。 メラトニンはアメリカ食品医薬品局(FDA)によってサプリメントに分類されており、医薬品ではない。メラトニンの徐放製剤は、2007年に欧州医薬品庁によって55歳以上の人々に対して処方箋医薬品としてCircadinが承認されたが、小さな効果しか示していない。メラトニン徐放製剤が症状を呈するオーストラリアでは2009年に承認された。ヒトが長期間にわたり外部から補給することによる完全な影響はまだ判明していない。また、2018年に欧州医薬品庁によって小児用メラトニン徐放製剤Slenytoが「小児及び青年期の自閉スペクトラム症及びスミス・マギネス症候群を伴う不眠症」の適応で承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フェブキソスタット(Febuxostat、開発コードTMX-67)は、非プリン型のキサンチンオキシダーゼ阻害薬である。痛風、高尿酸血症、またはがん化学療法に伴う高尿酸血症の治療薬として帝人ファーマが開発した。欧州、米国などに続いて、日本でもフェブリクとして2011年1月に承認された。尿酸産生を抑制し、痛風発作を予防する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピロロキノリンキノン (Pyrroloquinoline quinone, PQQ) は、1964年にJ.G. Haugeらにより、細菌のに含まれるニコチンアミドとフラビンに次ぐ3番目のとして見出された。 一方、AnthonyとZatmanも、アルコール脱水素酵素に未知の酸化還元補酵素があることを見出し、これをMetoxatinと名づけた。 1979年に、Salisburyら、およびDuineらのグループが、メチロトローフ(メタノール資化菌)のからこの補酵素を抽出し、その分子構造を同定した。Adachiらのグループは、酢酸菌の脱水素酵素にもPQQが含まれることを見出した。これらのPQQを含む酵素は、キノプロテインと呼ばれ、その一つであるグルコース脱水素酵素は、グルコースセンサーに用いられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インターロイキン-18(英: interleukin-18、略称: IL-18)は、ヒトではIL18遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。インターフェロンγ誘導因子(interferon-gamma inducing factor)とも呼ばれる。造血系細胞と非造血系細胞を含む多くの細胞種が、IL-18産生能力を持つ。IL-18は1989年にマウス脾臓細胞において、インターフェロンγ(IFN-γ)の産生を誘導する因子として最初に記載された。もともと、IL-18は肝臓に位置するマクロファージであるクッパー細胞で産生されることが知られていたが、細胞、ケラチノサイト、内皮細胞などの非造血系細胞でも恒常的に発現している。IL-18は自然免疫と獲得免疫の双方を調節し、その調節異常は自己免疫疾患や炎症疾患を引き起こす場合がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アジピン酸(アジピンさん、adipic acid)は、ジカルボン酸の一種。IUPAC命名法ではヘキサン二酸 (hexanedioic acid) と表される無臭の無色結晶性粉末である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シトラコン酸(シトラコンさん、citraconic acid)は、クエン酸の加熱分解で得られるカルボン酸の1種である。メサコン酸のシス異性体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アスパルテーム(aspartame、アスパルテイム、略称 APM ; 発音 [ˈæspərteɪm] または [əˈspɑːrteɪm])とは、人工甘味料の1つである。ヒトにはスクロースの100~200倍の甘味に感じられる。これに対して、アスパルテームの生理的熱量は、スクロースとほぼ同じ、約4 (kcal/g)であり、ノンカロリーではない。CAS登録番号は[22839-47-0]。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シクロオキシゲナーゼ2(英: cyclooxygenase-2、略称: COX-2)またはプロスタグランジンエンドペルオキシドシンターゼ2(英: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2、略称: PTGS2)は、ヒトではPTGS2遺伝子にコードされる酵素である。COX-2はヒトに2種類存在するシクロオキシゲナーゼのうちの1つである。COX-2はアラキドン酸からへの変換に関与しており、炎症時に発現する。プロスタグランジンH2はプロスタサイクリンの重要な前駆体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メロペネム(meropenem)は、さまざまな細菌感染症の治療に使用される広域抗生物質である。これらの一部には、髄膜炎 , 腹腔内感染, 肺炎, 敗血症、および炭疽菌 感染が含まれる。 この薬剤は静脈への注射によって投与される。製品名はメロペン(大日本住友製薬製造販売)。 一般的な副作用には、吐き気、下痢、便秘、頭痛、発疹、注射部位の痛みなどがある。重篤な副作用には、クロストリジウムディフィシル感染 , 痙攣, アナフィラキシーなどのアレルギー反応が含まれる。他のにアレルギーがある人は、メロペネムにアレルギーがある可能性が高くなる。妊娠中の使用は安全と思われる。カルバペネム系の薬である。メロペネムは通常、細胞壁を作る能力をブロックすることにより、細菌の死をもたらす。β-ラクタマーゼ産生菌による分解に対してより耐性がある。 メロペネムは1983年に特許を取得した。 1996年に米国で医療用途として承認された。 世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに載っている。これは健康システムに必要な最も効果的で安全な医薬品である。 発展途上国の卸売コストは、2015年時点で1グラムのバイアルあたり3.44〜20.58 USDである。 英国では、この金額により2015年にNHSの費用は約16ポンドになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    プテロスチルベン(Pterostilbene、/[ˌtɛrəˈstɪlbiːn]/、トランス-3,5-ジメトキシ-4-ヒドロキシスチルベン)は、スチルベノイドの1つでレスベラトロールの類縁体である。植物においては、ファイトアレキシンとして自己防衛のため分泌される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    イソキノリン (isoquinoline) は、ベンゼン環とピリジン環が縮合した構造を持つ複素環式芳香族化合物の一種である。キノリンの構造異性体にあたり、その構造を、2-アザナフタレン、2-ベンズアジン と表すこともできる。ピリジン環の 3,4位の結合部位にベンゼン環が縮合していることから ベンゾ[c]ピリジン とも表される。無色で吸湿性の油状物質で、強い臭いを呈する。広義では、イソキノリン骨格を持つ各種誘導体の化合物群を示す。イソキノリンは天然に存在するパパベリンやモルヒネなどのアルカロイドに含まれる。生体内で、それらのイソキノリン環はチロシンから誘導されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルコース-6-リン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ,G6PD)は、NADPH濃度を維持することにより細胞へ還元エネルギーを供給するペントースリン酸経路に関与する細胞質酵素の一つ。このNADPHは細胞内の主要な抗酸化成分であるグルタチオンの濃度を維持し、細胞を酸化的ダメージから保護している。また、NADPHは組織では肝臓や乳腺、脂肪組織および副腎における、脂肪酸やイソプレノイドの生合成にも使われている。この酵素の遺伝的欠損による非免疫性溶血性貧血(グルコース6リン酸脱水素酵素欠損症)はヒトにおいて顕著である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エタノールアミン(英語: ethanolamine)、2-アミノエタノール(2-aminoethanol)ないしはモノエタノールアミン(monoethanolamine, 略:MEA)は、一級アミン(分子構造上ではアミノ基)と一級アルコール(同様にヒドロキシ基)の両方を有する有機化合物である。他のアミン同様にモノエタノールアミンも弱い塩基として作用する。エタノールアミンは毒性、可燃性、腐食性を持つ無色、粘調な弱いアンモニア臭がする液体である。エタノールアミンの屈折率は1.4539である。消防法に定める第4類危険物 第3石油類に該当する。 一般にエタノールアミンはジエタノールアミン(DEA)やトリエタノールアミン(TEA)と区別する場合は、モノエタノールアミンないしはMEAと呼ばれる。モノエタノールアミンは酸化エチレンとアンモニアを反応させて製造される。さらに酸化エチレンが反応するとDEAやTEAが得られる。エタノールアミンはリン脂質の二番目に豊富な頭部構造であり、それらは生体膜中で見いだされる。 エタノールアミンは抗ヒスタミン薬の共通構造において、ジフェニルメタンに連結しているエチルアミン部分として見いだされる。例えばジフェンヒドラミン(ドリエル)、(Percogesic)、ドキシラミン(Unisom、睡眠導入剤)等の部分構造である。これらは第一世代の抗ヒスタミン薬であり、今日でもアレルギー疾患に有効である。しかし、スイッチOTCや処方医薬品のロラタジン (クラリチン)やフェキソフェナジン(アレグラ)など新しい第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬も登場している。第一世代は、エタノールアミンにより血液脳関門を通過するので、バルビツール酸系を凌駕する鎮静作用を持つ(新しい抗ヒスタミン薬はそうではない)。この理由のため、エタノールアミン構造を持つ抗ヒスタミン薬の強い眠気の作用を避けることができる第二世代抗ヒスタミン薬がしばしば処方される。逆に、この鎮静作用を持つため第一世代の抗ヒスタミン薬は抗アレルギー薬として以外にも、睡眠導入剤として薬局薬店で販売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    レニウム(英: rhenium)は原子番号75の元素。元素記号は Re。マンガン族元素の一つで、銀白色の金属。遷移金属(第3遷移金属)で、レアメタルの一種。地殻中においても、宇宙空間中においても最も希少な金属である。性質は一つ上のテクネチウムに酷似している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ウリジン (Uridine) は、ピリミジンヌクレオシドの1つでウラシルがリボース環にβ-N1-グリコシド結合で接続した構造をもつ物質(詳細はヌクレオチドを参照)である。 RNAの構成成分の1つである。一方、ウラシルがデオキシリボース環に接合しているものは、デオキシウリジンである。 吸収極大波長はpH2で262nmであり、希酸で加水分解されにくい性質を持ち、濃酸で加水分解するとウラシルとフルフラールになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセナフトキノン(acenaphthoquinone)は、アセナフテンのキノン誘導体である。水には溶けず、アルコールには溶ける。染料、薬品、殺虫剤の製造における合成中間体として使われる。刺激性がある。発ガン性についてはまだ十分な調査がなされていない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピネン(pinene)は、化学式がC10H16で表される有機化合物で、モノテルペンの1種。名称はマツ (pine) に由来し、その名の通り松脂や松精油の主成分であるほか、多くの針葉樹に含まれ特有の香りのもととなる。香料や医薬品の原料となる。 ピネンは六員環と四員環からなる炭化水素で、二重結合の位置が異なるα-ピネンとβ-ピネンの2つの構造異性体が存在する。さらにそれぞれが2種の鏡像異性体をもつことから、ピネンには合計4種の異性体が存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ミノキシジル(Minoxidil)とは血管拡張薬として開発された成分。後に発毛効果があるとされ発毛剤に転用され、日本以外ではRogaine(ロゲイン)の商品名で売られている。 日本では一般用医薬品として各社から市販されている。優れた発毛効果をもたらすことから「飲む育毛剤」とも呼ばれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ビシン (Bicine) は、緩衝剤として使われる有機化合物である。 グッドバッファーのひとつであり、20℃での pKa は 8.35 である。グリシンとエチレンオキシドを反応させ、生じたラクトンを加水分解することによって得られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リボース-5-リン酸(リボース-5-リンさん、英: Ribose 5-phosphate, R5P)は、ペントースリン酸経路で作られる中間体の一つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アスパラギン(英: asparagine)は、アミノ酸のひとつで、2-アミノ-3-カルバモイルプロピオン酸のこと。略号は N あるいは Asn。アスパラガスからはじめて単離されたことによりこの名がついた。 中性極性側鎖アミノ酸に分類される。蛋白質構成アミノ酸のひとつで、非必須アミノ酸。グリコーゲン生産性を持つ。コドンはAAUまたはAACである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    イミノクタジン(英: iminoctadine)は、グアニジン系殺菌剤の一種である。アルベシル酸塩及び酢酸塩の製剤が農薬として使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    過酢酸(かさくさん、peracetic acid)は、過酸、過カルボン酸のひとつ。PAA と略される。鼻を突く酢酸臭がある液体で、水に易溶。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    2,2,2-トリフルオロエタノール(英: 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol)は化学式CF3CH2OH で表される有機化合物である。TFEと略されることがある。水に可溶の無色透明な液体であり、エタノールと類似した臭気を有する。が電子求引性であるため、エタノールと比較すると酸性度が強い。このためTHFやピリジンといった複素環式化合物と、水素結合による安定な錯体を形成する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ノルエチステロン(norethisterone)またはノルエチンドロン(norethindrone)は商標名のアイゲスチン(Aygestin)やプリモルトN(Primolu N)などで販売されており、経口避妊薬や閉経期のホルモン療法などの婦人科の治療に用いられる薬剤である。低用量と高容量の製剤があり、それらは単体またとの混合剤がある。投与法は経口投与である。 ノルエチステロンの副作用には生理不順、頭痛、吐き気、乳房の痛み、気分の変化、ニキビ、発毛の増進などがあげられる。ノルエチステロンはプロゲスチンまたはジェスタージェン有機化合物であり、プロゲステロン受容体のアゴニストであり、プロゲステロンのようにプロゲストーゲンを生物学的標的とする。若干のアンドロゲンとエストロゲンの作用があるが、ほとんどは多用量の場合であり、その他のホルモン作用はない。 ノルエチステロンがカール・ジェラッシらによって発見されたのは1951年であり、最初に開発されたプロゲスチンの1つである。最初に単体で医薬品として用いられたのは1957年であり、エストロゲンと混合の経口避妊薬として使われ始めたのは1963年である。しばしば第一世代プロゲスチンと呼ばれる。デソゲストレルと同様にプロゲストーゲンのみの経口避妊薬として唯一広く使われるプロゲスチンの避妊薬である。 ノルエチステロンは世界中で幅広く販売されている。後発医薬品として入手できる。 ノルエチステロンに加えて数種類のプロドラッグがあり、(norethisterone acetate, NETA)や(norethisterone enanthate, NETE)などがあり、似たような用途のために販売されている。NETAはノルエチステロンと同様に投与法は経口であるが、NETEの投与法は筋肉注射である。多数あるノルエチステロンの誘導体ののかでもレボノルゲストレルとデソゲストレルが開発され販売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メタノール (methanol) とは、有機溶媒などとして用いられるアルコールの一種である。別名として、メチルアルコール (methyl alcohol)、木精 (wood spirit)、カルビノール (carbinol)、メチールとも呼ばれる。 一連のアルコールの中で、最も単純な分子構造を持つ。ホルマリンの原料、アルコールランプなどの燃料として広く使われる。燃料電池の水素の供給源としても注目されている。エタノールと違い、人体に有毒な化学物質で、代謝によりギ酸(蟻酸)を大量に生成し、失明や代謝性アシドーシスに至るため飲用不可である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピセオール(Piceol)は、オウシュウトウヒ(Picea abies)の針葉や菌根に見られるフェノール化合物である。ピセインは、ピセオールのグルコシドである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コハク酸(琥珀酸、コハクさん、succinic acid)は、構造式 HOOC–(CH2)2–COOH で表されるカルボン酸の一種。はじめコハクの乾留により見つかったためにこの名がついた。英名のsuccinic acidはラテン語のsuccinum(コハク)に由来する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インデン (indene) は、分子式がC9H8と表される二環性の炭化水素。可燃性。ベンゼンがシクロペンタジエン環と縮合した構造を持つ。純粋なインデンは無色だが、保管中に起こる重合や酸化により淡黄色を呈する。主な工業的用途として、熱可塑性を持つの原料となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルタチオンジスルフィド(glutathione disulfide、GSSG)は、2分子のグルタチオンから誘導されるジスルフィドである。 生細胞において、グルタチオンジスルフィドは補酵素NADPHからの還元等価物によって2分子のグルタチオンへ還元される。この反応はグルタチオンレダクターゼ (EC 1.8.1.7) によって触媒される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    サラゾスルファピリジン(Salazosulfapyridine、SASP)またはスルファサラジン(Sulfasalazine、SSZ)は1950年代に開発された抗リウマチ薬(DMARDs)である。サルファ剤に分類され、メサラジンとがアゾ結合している。日本ではアザルフィジンENとしてあゆみ製薬発売、ファイザー製造販売。 基本的な医療に必要とされるWHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インターロイキン-7(英:Interleukin-7、IL-7)は生理活性物質の一つであり、1988年にB細胞の前駆細胞(pre-B細胞)の増殖を促進する造血性サイトカインとして発見された。IL-7は細胞膜上に存在するIL-7受容体(IL-7R)を介してその生理作用を発現する。1988年にはIL-7、1990年にはIL-7RのcDNAがそれぞれ単離されている。分子量は25kDaである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ボリコナゾール(Voriconazole)はアゾール系(系)抗真菌薬の一種で、重症または難治性の真菌感染症に用いる。日本では2005年に発売された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    LGD-2226は、研究中の選択的アンドロゲン受容体修飾薬(SARM)であり、筋力低下および骨粗鬆症の治療薬として開発されている 。 LGD-2226は、経口で作用する強力なアンドロゲン受容体の選択的アゴニストであり、筋肉および骨組織の両方に同化作用を示すが、テストステロンに比べて前立腺の重量および黄体形成ホルモンレベルへの影響はかなり少ないことが示されている。 選択的アンドロゲン受容体モジュレーターは、アスリートがトレーニングを支援し、肉体的スタミナとフィットネスを向上させるために使用されることもあり、潜在的にはアナボリックステロイドと同様の効果をもたらすが、副作用は大幅に少ない。このため、2008年1月以降、このクラスの医薬品がまだ臨床使用されていないにもかかわらず、世界アンチ・ドーピング機関によってSARMsはすでに禁止されており、LGD-2226を含むすべての既知のSARMsの血液検査が現在開発されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    3-ヒドロキシ安息香酸(3-hydroxybenzoic acid)は、モノヒドロキシ安息香酸の一つ。この物質はシュードモナス属によってから合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フルコナゾールは、深在性真菌症に用いられるの抗真菌薬。日本では、ファイザーがジフルカンとして販売しているほか、いくつかの後発医薬品が販売されている。剤形には、カプセル剤、、がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    1,2-ジクロロエタン(1,2-Dichloroethane, DCE)は、ハロゲン系炭化水素に属する有機化合物である。二塩化エチレン(ethylene dichloride, EDC)とも呼ばれる。主に塩化ビニルモノマー(クロロエチレン)の生産に用いられ、ポリ塩化ビニルの前駆体とされる。また他の有機化合物の合成においても有用な反応中間体として使われたり、溶媒として用いられたりもする。クロロホルム様の臭気を持つ無色の液体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ウベニメクス(INN: Ubenimex)またはベスタチン (bestatin) は、競合的、可逆的プロテアーゼ阻害剤である。アルギニルアミノペプチダーゼ、ロイコトリエンA4ヒドロラーゼ、、、を阻害する。急性骨髄性白血病やリンパ水腫の治療への利用が研究されている。Streptomyces abikoensisが産生する。ウベニメクスは、オキシトシン、バソプレッシン、エンケファリン、その他の様々なペプチドや化合物の酵素分解を阻害することが知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    血管拡張因子刺激リン酸化タンパク質(Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein)とは、ヒトのVASP遺伝子にコードされているタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    分子生物学において、CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) とはいわゆるヘルパーT細胞、単球、マクロファージ、樹状細胞などの免疫系細胞が細胞表面に発現している糖タンパクで細胞表面抗原の1つである。1970年代後半に発見されたこの分子は、1984年にCD4と名付けられるまではleu-3、T4として知られていた。ヒトの場合、CD4遺伝子にコードされている。 CD4陽性T細胞はヒトの免疫系において必要不可欠な白血球である。しばしばCD4細胞、Th細胞、T4細胞と呼ばれることもある(以下CD4細胞)。この細胞の主要な役割はCD8陽性T細胞(いわゆるキラーT細胞、もしくは細胞傷害性T細胞、以下CD8細胞)などの他の免疫系細胞にシグナルを送ることであり、このことからCD4細胞はヘルパー細胞と呼ばれる。CD4細胞がシグナルを送ると、CD8細胞はそれを受けて感染細胞を破壊しこれを殺す。無治療のHIV-1感染患者や臓器移植前の免疫抑制状態のようにCD4細胞が枯渇すると、健常者では発現しない感染症の病原体に感染し易くなる(日和見感染)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    2-ナフトール(en:2-Naphthol)は示性式C10H7OHを有する蛍光性有機化合物である。無色(または黄色)の結晶固体である。ナフタレンの水素を1個、ヒドロキシ基に置換した化合物で、フェノール類に分類される芳香族化合物である。また、そのヒドロキシ基はフェノールよりも反応性が高い。ヒドロキシ基の置換位置が異なる異性体、1-ナフトールが存在する。化学工業ではβ-ナフトールと呼ばれている。異性体はいずれも単純なアルコール、エーテル、クロロホルムに溶けやすい。2-ナフトールは毒物及び劇物取締法に定める劇物に該当する。2-ナフトールは、染料および他の化合物の製造のために広く使用される中間体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    イソフェルラ酸はヒドロキシケイ皮酸の誘導体の一つで、フェルラ酸の異性体である。ケイ皮酸の3位にヒドロキシ基、4位にメトキシ基を持つことから、3-ヒドロキシ-4-メトキシケイ皮酸とも呼ばれる。フェルラ酸は、3位と4位の配置が本物質とは逆になる。本物質はヘスペレチン酸の別名も持つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヘキサデカン (hexadecane) は炭化水素の一種で、炭素が16連なった直鎖アルカン。分子式は C16H34。沸点287℃。融点18.2℃。異性体の数は10359。 かつてはセタン(cetane)と呼ばれていた。これは誘導体のセチルアルコールにちなむが、さらに遡るとセチルアルコールの原料であるクジラの学名ケートゥス(Cetus)に由来する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    バゼドキシフェン(bazedoxifene)は骨粗鬆症治療薬のひとつ。バゼドキシフェン酢酸塩 として用いられる。(がんの治療の可能性については多くの研究を保留中である) この薬剤は第三世代の選択的エストロゲン受容体モジュレーター (SERM)である。 2013年後半以来、 閉経後 骨粗鬆症の予防(治療ではないにおける合剤 Duaveeの一部として、バゼドキシフェンに対する米国FDAの承認を受けている。 乳がんと膵臓がんの治療の可能性についても研究されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    p21 / WAF1は、ヒト (6p21.2) に位置するCDKN1A遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。サイクリン依存性キナーゼ阻害因子1(cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1)あるいはCDK相互作用タンパク質1 (CDK-interacting protein 1) としても知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジミナゼン(英:diminazene)とは動物用医薬品で抗ピロプラズマ薬のひとつ。ジミナゼン類の代表的薬物。CAS登録番号は [536-71-0]。2個のアミジン構造と、1個のトリアゼン構造を持つ。作用機序は原虫の嫌気的解糖を阻害することによるとされる。獣医学領域においてウシのBabesia ovata、イヌのBabesia gibsoniに有効であるが、反復投与によりウシにおいては脂肪変性、イヌにおいてはや出血といった副作用が生じる。その他のジミナゼン類の化合物としてはなどがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    8-キノリノールは、キノリンの炭素8番の水素がヒドロキシル基に置換した有機化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジエチレングリコールモノメチルエーテル (Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether) とは有機化合物の一種である。ジエチレングリコールのヒドロキシ基が1個メチル化された化合物。 使用用途は氷結防止剤、印刷インキ、染料、粘度調整剤、樹脂溶剤、工業用中間原料など。 JP-5ジェット燃料の氷結防止剤として販売されている。 消防法に定める第4類危険物 第3石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    7-ニトロインダゾール (7-Nitroindazole、7-NI) は、7位がニトロ化したインダゾール環を含む複素環式化合物の小分子である。ニトロインダゾールは、神経細胞組織に存在しアルギニンをシトルリンと一酸化窒素に変換する神経型一酸化窒素合成酵素 (nNOS) の選択的阻害剤である。一酸化窒素は細胞膜を透過して隣の細胞に拡散し細胞シグナル伝達を行うため、ニトロインダゾールは間接的にこのシグナリングを阻害することとなる。他の阻害剤には、より強いが特異性の低いや異なる部位に作用するがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    デオキシアデノシン二リン酸(Deoxyadenosine diphosphate)は、である。一般的な核酸であるアデノシン三リン酸と関連があり、ヌクレオチドのペントースの2'炭素についた水酸基がなく、さらにATPよりもリン酸基が1つ少ない。 2'-デオキシアデノシン二リン酸は、dADPと略称される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インドメタシン(英: indometacin)とは非ステロイド性抗炎症薬の一つ。アラキドン酸カスケードにおけるシクロオキシゲナーゼ(COX)を阻害することによりプロスタグランジン類の生成を抑制することによって抗炎症作用を示す。また、抗炎症作用以外に鎮痛作用を持つ。 プロドラッグとしてインドメタシンファルネシル、アセメタシンがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カフェイン(英語: caffeine)は、アルカロイドの1種であり、プリン環を持ったキサンチンと類似した構造を持った有機化合物の1つとしても知られる。ヒトなどに対して興奮作用を持ち、世界で最も広く使われている精神刺激薬である。カフェインは、アデノシン受容体に拮抗することによって覚醒作用、解熱鎮痛作用、強心作用、利尿作用を示す。 フリードリープ・フェルディナント・ルンゲによりコーヒー(coffee)から単離されたため、カフェイン(ドイツ語: Coffein)と命名された。主に、コーヒー飲料、緑茶、ウーロン茶、紅茶、ココア、コーラ、エナジードリンクや栄養ドリンクなどの飲料、チョコレートなどにカフェインが含まれる。一方で、妊娠期や過敏体質によりカフェインレスコーヒー、麦茶などカフェインを含有しない飲料の需要もある。 医薬品では総合感冒薬や鎮痛薬などに用いられる。その際の副作用として不眠、めまいなどが含まれる。またカフェインの減量あるいは中止による禁断症状として、頭痛、集中欠如、疲労感、気分の落ち込みなど吐き気や筋肉痛が、およそ2日後をピークとして生じる場合がある。頭痛は1日平均235 mgの摂取で、2日目には52%が経験する。 カフェインは肝臓で発現している代謝酵素の1つであるCYP1A2で代謝されるため、この阻害作用のある薬と併用すると、血中濃度が高まり作用が強く出る薬物相互作用を引き起こし得る。一方、ニコチンにはCYP1A2の誘導作用があるため、習慣的な喫煙によってカフェインの作用は減弱する。なお、カフェインは肝臓ででも代謝される事が知られている。 また、ヒトでは加齢によって身体の水分量低下と相対的な脂肪の増加が発生するため、様々な薬物の分布容積が変化する事が知られており、カフェインの場合は分布容積が減少する。さらに、加齢によってCYP1A2は減少する傾向が有ると考えられている。したがって、高齢者ではカフェインの血中濃度が上昇し易く、作用が増強し易い。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エルゴステロール (ergosterol) は、分子式 C28H44O、分子量 396.65 のステロールの一種。骨格を持つ脂溶性物質である。カビなどの菌類においてラノステロールから生合成される。紫外線を受けてとなり、これを経てエルゴカルシフェロール(ビタミンD2)となる。 菌類の細胞膜を構成する物質であり、動物の細胞におけるコレステロールと同様な働きをする。菌類には存在するが動物には見られないという性質は抗真菌薬の開発に応用されている。トリパノソーマのような原生生物の細胞膜の流動化剤 (fluidizer) としても作用し、これは東アフリカでみられるアフリカ睡眠病に対して用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アラキドン酸-5-リポキシゲナーゼ (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) は、アラキドン酸代謝酵素の一つで、次の化学反応を触媒する酸化還元酵素である。 アラキドン酸 + O2 (5S,6S,7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-5,6-エポキシイコサ-7,9,11,14-テトラエン酸 + H2O 反応式の通り、この酵素の基質はアラキドン酸とO2、生成物は(5S,6S,7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-5,6-エポキシイコサ-7,9,11,14-テトラエン酸とH2Oである。 組織名はarachidonate:oxygen 5-oxidoreductaseで、別名にleukotriene-A4 synthase、δ5-lipoxygenase、5δ-lipoxygenase、arachidonic 5-lipoxygenase、arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase、C-5-lipoxygenase、LTA synthase、leukotriene A4 synthaseがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アドレナリン(adrenaline、英名)、エピネフリン(epinephrine、米名、IUPAC組織名:4-[1-ヒドロキシ-2-(メチルアミノ)エチル]ベンゼン-1,2-ジオール)は、副腎髄質より分泌されるホルモンであり、薬物である また、神経節や脳神経系における神経伝達物質でもある。分子式はC9H13NO3である。戦うか逃げるか反応において重要な役割を果たす。 ストレス反応の中心的役割を果たし、血中に放出されると心拍数や血圧を上げ、瞳孔を開きブドウ糖の血中濃度(血糖値)を上げる作用などがある。 「生体内で合成される生理活性物質」という捉え方と、「医薬品」という捉え方の違いから、生物学の教科書・論文では世界共通でアドレナリンと呼んでいるのに対して、医学においては世界共通でエピネフリンと呼ばれている。ただし、欧州薬局方では「アドレナリン」が採用されているほか、日本でも医薬品の正式名称を定める日本薬局方が2006年4月に改正され、一般名がエピネフリンからアドレナリンに変更されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チラミン (Tyramine; 4-hydroxy phenylethylamine, C8H11NO) は、生体内での作用によりチロシン(Tyr)から産生されるアミンで、フェネチルアミンの誘導体の1つである。チラミンは、モノアミン神経伝達物質(セロトニン、ノルアドレナリン、アドレナリン、ヒスタミン、ドーパミン、アセチルコリンなど)と構造が良く似ている。さまざまな食品に含有されており、高血圧発作の誘因となる化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    TATA結合タンパク質(ターターけつごうタンパクしつ、英: TATA-binding protein、TBP)とは、TATAボックスと呼ばれるDNA配列に特に結合する基本転写因子のことである。このDNA配列は一部の真核生物の遺伝子のプロモーター領域においての約25塩基対上流で見つかっている。TBPは、様々なTBPに関連した因子とともにRNAポリメラーゼII転写開始前複合体を作り上げる基本転写因子であるTFIIDを作り上げる。特有のDNA配列に結合する転写開始前複合体である数少ないタンパク質の1つとして、RNAポリメラーゼIIが遺伝子の転写開始位置に結合する助けとなる。しかしながら、ヒトのプロモーター領域の10-20%にしかTATAボックスが存在しないと考えられている。それゆえ、TBPはRNAポリメラーゼIIの位置決定のみに必要とされているのではないと考えられている。 TBPはDNAを80°折り曲げることで二本鎖DNAを解離することに関与している(多くのA-T間の結合はより容易にほどける)。TBPはβシートによる数少ない溝に結合するという点で、特異なタンパク質である。 TBPのもう1つの特異な特徴は、タンパク質のN末端における長いグルタミンの連続である。この領域がC末端のDNAへの結合の活性を調節しており、この調節が転写複合体 (transcription complex) 形成と転写開始に影響を与えている。このポリグルタミン領域をコードするCAGの繰り返しの数が多くなり、結果、ポリグルタミン鎖が伸長する変異は、神経変性である脊髄小脳失調症17型 (SCA17) に関係している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カナバニン(Canavanine)は、豆果に含まれる、タンパク質を構成しないアミノ酸である。構造的にはアルギニンと関連があり、アルギニンのメチレン基(-CH2-)がカナバニンではオキサ基(酸素原子)になっている。カナバニンは主に種子に蓄積し、草食動物からの防護と成長中の胚の窒素源の2つの役割を持つ。カナバニンの毒性のメカニズムは、これを摂取した生物がアルギニンと間違えてタンパク質に取り込み、適切な機能を持たない構造的に異常なタンパク質が作られることによるものである。 ある特殊な草食動物は、カナバニンを効率的に代謝したり、新しいタンパク質への取込みを避けたりして、カナバニン耐性を持つ。この能力の例は、やの幼虫で見られ、大量のカナバニンの摂取にも耐えられる。これらの幼虫は、恐らく基質特異性の高いアルギニンtRNAリガーゼのためにカナバニンのタンパク質への取込みを避けることができる。対照的に、タバコスズメガの幼虫はアルギニンtRNAリガーゼの基質特異性が低いため、生体重で1.0 μg/kgという少量のカナバニンの摂取に耐えられない。これらの生物のアルギニンtRNAリガーゼは実験的に調べられていないが、タバコスズメガで、されたアルギニンとカナバニンの取込の比率が約3:1であることが示されている。 マメ科のDioclea megacarpaの種子は、多量のカナバニンを含んでいる。マメゾウムシ亜科のCaryedes brasiliensisはこれに耐性を持つが、既知で最も基質特異性の高いアルギニンtRNAリガーゼを持つ。この昆虫では、新しく合成されたタンパク質に取り込まれるカナバニンの放射性標識は、ほぼ検出されない。さらに、カナバニンを他のアミノ酸合成のための窒素源として用いることができる。 カナバニンを摂取させたNZB/W F1、NZB、DBA/2のマウスは、全身性エリテマトーデスと似た症状を示すが、1%のカナバニンを含むタンパク質を恒常的に摂取したBALB/cマウスは、寿命に変化は見られなかった。カナバニンの毒性は、恐らくタンパク質欠乏の状況で強まり、1%程度のカナバニンを含むの種子の摂取による毒性は、「イントゥ・ザ・ワイルド」で映画化されたの死の原因として示唆されている。 ムラサキウマゴヤシの種子と芽はカナバニンを含み、ヒトを含むサル目の全身性エリテマトーデス様症状やその他の自己免疫疾患と関連している。多くの場合、消費を止めると問題が解消される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    プロピオン酸(プロピオンさん、英: propionic acid)は、カルボン酸の一種。IUPAC命名法でプロパン酸 (propanoic acid)。消防法による第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。 語源は「最初の脂肪酸」という意味で、油脂の加水分解により得られる脂肪酸のうち、最も炭素数の少ないものであったことによる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エチレンジアミン四酢酸(エチレンジアミンしさくさん、ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)は、金属キレーション剤の1種であり、EDTA あるいはエデト酸と呼ばれることがある。通常、とくに断りのない場合、 EDTA はジナトリウム塩であり、日本薬局方ではエデト酸ナトリウムである。ジナトリウム塩であることを正確に記述したい場合や強調したい場合などは、エチレンジアミン四酢酸二ナトリウム、エチレンジアミン四酢酸二水素二ナトリウム、EDTA・2Na、などと記述される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ボスチニブ(Bosutinib)はチロシンキナーゼ阻害作用を持つ抗がん剤(分子標的薬)であり、慢性骨髄性白血病の治療に用いられる。ワイスにより創薬され、ファイザーによる買収後、同社で開発が継続された。商品名ボシュリフ。治験コードSKI-606。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キュリウム (英: curium [ˈkjʊəriəm]) は原子番号96の元素。元素記号は Cm。アクチノイド元素の一つ。超ウラン元素でもある。安定同位体は存在しない。 銀白色の金属で、常温、常圧で安定な結晶構造は面心立方構造 (α、fcc)で、約500℃で体心立方(β、dcc)、更に約1000℃で六方最密充填構造(γ、hcp)が安定となる。比重は理論値で13.51、融点は1340 °C (1350 °C)、沸点は3520 °C。原子価は+3、+4価。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルコノラクトン (gluconolactone) は、グルコースの1位のヒドロキシ基がケトンに置き換わった、代表的なラクトンの一種である。別名をグルコノ-δ-ラクトンといい、GDL と略される。 生体内ではグルコース-1-デヒドロゲナーゼの作用によりグルコースから変換される。たとえば、ミツバチは体内でグルコースからグルコノラクトンを作り、蜂蜜に多く含まれる。そのため別名ハチミツ酸とも言われる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヘキサフルオロベンゼン (Hexafluorobenzne, HFB, C6F6, Perfluorobenzne) は、ベンゼンの水素が全部フッ素で置き換えらた芳香族有機化合物である。技術的な使用は限定されているが、光化学反応の溶媒として推奨されている。研究室では、19F-NMR の標準、13C-NMR の溶媒と標準、1H-NMR の溶媒、赤外スペクトルの一部の研究をする場合の溶媒、紫外部領域にはほとんど吸収を示さないため紫外可視スペクトルの溶媒として使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    4-ニトロフェノール (4-nitrophenol) はニトロ基を有するフェノール化合物であり、別名としてp-ニトロフェノール、4-ヒドロキシニトロベンゼンとも呼ばれる。CAS登録番号 100-02-7、化審法3-777。PRTR第1種239。分子式 C6H5NO3。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キニーネ(蘭: kinine)またはキニン(英: quinine、クイニン)は、キナの樹皮に含まれる分子式C20H24N2O2のアルカロイドである。IUPAC名は(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)[(2S,4S,5R)-5-vinyl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-yl]-(R)-methanol。1820年にキナの樹皮から単離、命名され、1908年に平面構造が決定し、1944年に絶対立体配置も決定された。また1944年にロバート・バーンズ・ウッドワードらが全合成を達成した。ただしウッドワードらの全合成の成否については後述の通り議論がある。 マラリア原虫に特異的に毒性を示すマラリアの特効薬である。キューガーデンが移植を手がけて以来、帝国主義時代から第二次世界大戦を経てベトナム戦争まで、ずっとかけがえのない薬だった。米国は野戦病院等でキニーネを使い、1962-1964年頃に手持ちが底をついた。急に大量発注され、そこへ国際カルテルが便乗し、キニーネは暴騰した。参加企業は欧州諸共同体のキニーネ/キニジンメーカーを網羅していた。 その後、キニーネの構造を元にクロロキンやメフロキンなどの人工的な抗マラリア薬が開発され、ある程度の副作用のあるキニーネは代替されてあまり用いられなくなっていった。しかし、東南アジアおよび南アジア、アフリカ、南アメリカ中北部といった赤道直下の地域において熱帯熱マラリアにクロロキンやメフロキンに対して耐性を持つものが多くみられるようになったため、現在ではその治療に利用される。 また強い苦味を持つ物質として知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リバビリン(Ribavirin)は、抗ウイルス薬の一つで、主にC型肝炎やウイルス性出血熱等の治療で施行されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フルラゼパム (flurazepam) とは、ベンゾジアゼピン系の睡眠導入剤の一種。長時間作用型。 日本ではダルメート、ベノジールという商品名で発売されている。日本の処方箋医薬品であり、医師の処方箋なしでは入手することはできない。アメリカ・カナダ・オーストラリアではダルメーン。 連用により依存症、急激な量の減少により離脱症状を生じることがある。向精神薬に関する条約のスケジュールIVに指定されている。麻薬及び向精神薬取締法の第三種向精神薬である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アポシニン(アセトバニロン、アセトグアイアコンとも)は天然の有機化合物でバニリンと類似した構造を持つ。NADPHオキシダーゼ活性を阻害し活性酸素の生産を抑制する作用があるため、抗炎症効果を持つ。様々な植物から単離することができ、薬理学的研究が行われている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ベンジルアミン (benzylamine) とは有機化合物の一種で、アンモニアの水素がひとつベンジル基に置き換わった一級アミンである。外見は無色の液体で、有機合成の原料として用いられる。 ベンジルアミンはベンゾニトリルの水素化によって得られる。 二級アミンを合成したい場合、ベンジル基がによって除去可能であることから、ベンジルアミンはアンモニアの合成等価体として用いられる。 (XはClやBrなどのハロゲン、もしくはOTsなどの脱離基。) 一段階目の反応を進めるため、通常はHXを捕捉する塩基が加えられる。ベンジルアミンの代わりにアンモニアを用いると、RX との反応で三級アミンR3Nあるいは四級アンモニウム R4N+の生成が起こる。 空気に触れているとゆっくり炭酸塩へ変わる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ノナン (nonane) は化学式C9H20で表される直鎖アルカン炭化水素。無色、可燃性の液体であり、暖房、トラクター、ジェット燃料として使われているケロシンと呼ばれる石油の分留成分に含まれている。溶媒、蒸留チェイサー、燃料添加物、生分解性洗剤の成分としても使われている。 35種の構造異性体が存在する。 置換基はノニルである。対応するシクロアルカンはシクロノナン(C9H18)である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    テオフィリン(英語: Theophylline)は、茶葉に含まれる苦味成分であり、アルカロイドの一種で、カフェインやテオブロミンと同じキサンチン誘導体に分類される。強力な気管支拡張作用があり、医薬品として、気管支喘息や慢性気管支炎、慢性閉塞性肺疾患(COPD)などの呼吸器系疾患の治療に用いられる。しかしその際に、副作用で痙攣を起こすことがあり問題になっている。茶葉に含まれる量は、医薬品として用いられる量に比べて非常に少ない。カフェインが肝臓で代謝される際の産生物の一部である。テオフィリンの作用は主として、ホスホジエステラーゼの阻害によるセカンドメッセンジャーとしての細胞内cAMP濃度の増大によるものである。 日本における商品名はテオロング(エイザイ)、テオドール(田辺三菱製薬)、ユニフィル(大塚製薬)などがあるが、この他に現在は後発医薬品が各社から販売されている。徐放錠剤、徐放顆粒剤、内用液、シロップ剤等が存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トリデシル酸(Tridecylic acid)は、化学式CH3(CH2)11COOHの13炭素長の飽和脂肪酸である。系統名は、トリデカノン酸(tridecanoic acid)である。乳製品中に一般的に見られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    テノイルトリフルオロアセトン (英: thenoyltrifluoroacetone, C8H5F3O2S) は、薬理学的にキレート剤として使われる化合物である。電子伝達系の複合体IIをブロックし、細胞呼吸を阻害する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    UDP-グルコース-6-デヒドロゲナーゼ(UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase)は、次の化学反応を触媒する酸化還元酵素である。 UDP-グルコース + 2 NAD+ + H2O UDP-グルクロン酸 + 2 NADH + 2 H+ 反応式の通り、この酵素の基質はUDP-グルコースとNAD+と水、生成物はUDP-グルクロン酸とNADHとH+である。 組織名はUDP-glucose:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductaseである。別名に、UDP-glucose dehydrogenase、uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase、UDPG dehydrogenase、UDPG:NAD oxidoreductase、UDP-alpha-D-glucose:NAD oxidoreductase、UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase、uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase、UDP-D-glucose dehydrogenase、uridine diphosphate D-glucose dehydrogenaseがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エリスロマイシン (INN:erythromycin) とは、14員環マクロライド系抗菌薬の1つである。日本では「エリスロシン」の商品名でも販売されてきた経緯が有るものの、化学でエリスロシン(英語:erythrosine)と言った場合には、全く別な赤色の合成着色料の1種の名称である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ボリノスタット(Vorinostat)は、別名:スベロイルアニリドヒドロキサム酸(スベロイル+アニリド+ヒドロキサム酸、SAHA)として知られる化合物である。ヒストン脱アセチル化酵素(HDAC)阻害薬であり、広くエピジェネティクな活性を有する。商品名ゾリンザ。 他剤治療抵抗性・再発性の皮膚T細胞性リンパ腫(CTCL)への効果が期待される。日本における効能・効果は、「皮膚T細胞性リンパ腫」である。 またボリノスタットはHIV-1に感染した静止期のCD4+T細胞からHIV遺伝子を「放り出し」、プロウイルス状態でのHIV-1の潜伏を阻止できることが示された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キナゾリン (quinazoline) とは、ベンゼン環とピリミジン環の2個の6員環が縮合した構造を持つ芳香族化合物。分子式は  C8H6N2 で、外見は黄色の結晶。 医療では、抗マラリア剤やがんの治療薬にキナゾリンの誘導体が利用される。例えば降圧薬(α受容体遮断薬)のドキサゾシンはキナゾリン環を含む。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リナグリプチン(Linagliptin)は、ジペプチジルペプチダーゼ阻害薬に分類される経口血糖降下薬である。ジペプチジルペプチダーゼはインクレチンの分解などに関係する酵素であり、これを阻害することにより血中のグルカゴン様ペプチド-1(GLP-1)の濃度を高め、血清インスリン濃度の上昇 および 血糖値の低下をもたらすと考えられている。日本では商品名トラゼンタで、日本イーライリリーおよび日本ベーリンガーインゲルハイムから販売されている。 GLP-1アナログ製剤と同じくインクレチン関連薬に分類される。SU剤に代表される経口血糖降下薬に比べて、低血糖のリスクが少ないと言われている。副作用としては、腹部膨満・便秘・浮腫などが報告されている。 ジペプチジルペプチダーゼ-4(DPP-4)によって分解されるGLP-1以外のペプチド基質については、DPP-4の項を参照されたい。 リナグリプチンを含むDPP-4 阻害薬は、癌リスク上昇と関連していなかった旨が報告されたが、解析に用いられた研究の試験期間は二年以下と短い。ゆえに、長期的な癌リスクは、現時点では明らかではないと考えるべきである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヒポキサンチン(Hypoxanthine)は、天然に存在するプリン誘導体の一つである。ヒポキサンチンは核酸で見られ、ヌクレオシドイノシンの形でtRNAのアンチコドンに存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    レニン(Renin, EC.3.4.23.15)はアンジオテンシノーゲンのペプチド結合を分解してアンジオテンシンIを合成するタンパク質分解酵素の一種。アンジオテンシノーゲン中の非常に特異的なペプチド配列を認識し分解するため、発見当初は活性化の仕組みがわからずホルモンかキナーゼの一種ではないかと考えられていた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アミトリプチリン(Amitriptyline)は、抗うつ薬の中でも最初に開発された三環系抗うつ薬(TCA)の一種である。主に抗うつ用途として処方されるケースが多いが、神経痛や薬物乱用頭痛の緩和、それにともなう頭痛薬の断薬などを目的に処方されるケースもある。作用機序としては、脳内においてノルアドレナリン及びセロトニンの再取り込みを抑制し、シナプス領域のモノアミンが増量する。日本での先発品名はトリプタノール、ラントロン、旧称ノーマルンである。 副作用では添付文書などにおいて、自殺リスクの増加のおそれについての注意がある。減薬は徐々に行う必要がある。抗コリン作用が強く、口渇、便秘、めまい、眠気、排尿障害、などの三環系抗うつ薬にありがちな副作用が強く現れやすい。 世界保健機関の必須医薬品の一覧に収録されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    デオキシグアノシン三リン酸(Deoxyguanosine triphosphate、dGTP)は、ヌクレオシド三リン酸であり、DNA複製に用いられるヌクレオチドの前駆体である。この物質は、シークエンスやクローニングにおけるポリメラーゼ連鎖反応に用いられる。また、単純ヘルペスウイルスの治療に用いられるアシクロビルを競合阻害する 。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ベンゼン(英: benzene)は、分子式 C6H6、分子量 78.11 の最も単純な芳香族炭化水素である。原油に含まれており、石油化学における基礎的化合物の1つである。分野によっては慣用としてドイツ語 (Benzol:ベンツォール) 風にベンゾールと呼ぶことがある。ベンジン(benzine、主として炭素数5 - 10の飽和炭化水素からなる混合物)とはまったく別の物質であるが、英語では異綴の同音異義語である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    尿素(にょうそ、英: urea)は、有機化合物で、生体の代謝に使われ尿中に排泄される。カルバミドともいう。無機化合物から初めて合成された有機化合物として、有機化学史上、重要な物質である。 保水作用があり皮膚に水分を保持している成分のひとつで、保湿剤や濃度を高くし角質融解に使われる。肥料や防氷剤にも使われる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    α2-マクログロブリン(英: alpha-2-Macroglobulin、略称: α2M)は、血液中に存在する巨大(720 kDa)な血漿タンパク質である。主に肝臓で産生されるが、マクロファージ、線維芽細胞、副腎皮質細胞でも局所的な合成が行われる。ヒトではA2M遺伝子にコードされる。 α2-マクログロブリンは抗プロテアーゼ機能を持ち、きわめて多様なプロテアーゼを不活性化することができる。プラスミンやカリクレインを阻害し、の阻害因子として機能する。トロンビンを阻害し、血液凝固の阻害因子としても機能する。α2-マクログロブリンは、血小板由来成長因子(PDGF)や塩基性線維芽細胞増殖因子(bFGF)、TGF-β、インスリン、IL-1βなど、多数の成長因子やサイトカインと結合し、これらの生物学的活性に影響を与えている可能性がある。 疾患と関係した特異的な欠乏症や、α2-マクログロブリンが低濃度となることが原因となる疾患も知られていない。ネフローゼ症候群において、他の低分子量タンパク質が尿中へ失われた際、α2-マクログロブリンの濃度は増加する。α2-マクログロブリンはサイズが大きいため尿中への喪失を免れ、膠質浸透圧の維持に寄与している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チミン (thymine) はデオキシリボ核酸 (DNA) を構成する塩基の1つで、ピリミジンの誘導体。5-メチルウラシルとも呼ばれるように、ウラシルの5位の炭素をメチル化した構造を持つ。英発音に従ってサイミンともいう。DNA中にのみ見られ、リボ核酸 (RNA) ではほとんどの場合ウラシルに置き換わっている。2本の水素結合を介してアデニンと結合する。 DNA はアデニン (A)、グアニン (G)、シトシン (C)、チミン (T) の4種で構成されている。アデニン、グアニン、シトシンは RNAの核酸塩基にも同じ構造が見られるが、RNAではチミン (T) がウラシルに置き換わっている。チミンとウラシルは共にピリミジン環を持つ非常に似た塩基である。 シトシンが化学分解されるとウラシルが生成してしまうため、DNAではウラシルの代わりにチミンが用いられるようになった。これによりシトシンの分解により誤って生成してしまったウラシルを検出し、修復することが可能になるなどの利点が生じた。DNAは配列を保存することが何より重要であるため、DNAにチミンが用いられることは理に適っていると言える。一方、RNAにおいては配列の正確性がそれほど重要ではないため、ウラシルが用いられていると考えられる。 チミンの生合成については、デオキシウリジン一リン酸と5,10-メチレンテトラヒドロ葉酸は、チミジル酸シンターゼ (FAD)によりメチル化されたチミジル酸(dTMP)とテトラヒドロ葉酸を生成する。 (反応式)5,10-メチレンテトラヒドロ葉酸 + デオキシウリジン一リン酸(dUMP) + FADH2 チミジル酸(dTMP) + テトラヒドロ葉酸 + FAD なお、DNAの合成は、dUMP(デオキシウリジン一リン酸)-dTMP(チミジル酸)-dTDP(チミジン二リン酸)-dTTP(チミジン三リン酸)と進み、リン酸2分子分のピロリン酸が遊離して、チミジル酸に相当する部分がDNA鎖のデオキシリボースの3'位に結合することで、アデニン、グアニン、シトシン、チミンと4種類あるDNA塩基のうちのチミンが完成する。 DNAの変異として一般的なものに、隣接した2個のチミンあるいはシトシンが紫外線によって二量体となり、機能障害を引き起こす「キンク」と呼ばれる部分を形成する現象がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トリクロサン(英語: triclosan)は、医薬部外品の薬用石鹸、うがい薬、食器用洗剤、練り歯磨き、脱臭剤、手の消毒剤、及び化粧品など、様々な場面で使用されている、一般的な家庭用の抗菌剤である。アメリカではその効果への疑問や健康リスクからトリクロサンを含む一般用抗菌石鹸の販売は禁止されている。 トリクロサンは高濃度では、複数の細胞質と細胞膜を標的にとして作用する。低濃度では、エノイル酵素に結合し、脂肪酸合成を阻害することにより、静菌的に作用する。脂肪酸は、細胞膜を構築したり再生するために必要である。ヒトはENR酵素(エノイル[アシル輸送タンパク質]レダクターゼ (NADH))を持っていないため影響を受けないとされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チチン(Titin)またはコネクチン(connectin)は、骨格筋の収縮に関わるタンパク質である。長さ1µmを超える巨大なタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チクロピジン(Ticlopidine)は、チエノピリジン系の抗血小板剤である。日本や台湾においては、医薬品としての商品名としてパナルジンとも呼ばれている。英語圏での商品名はTiclidである。体内で代謝を受けてはじめて薬効を発揮するプロドラッグであり、肝臓で代謝されたのち血小板膜上のアデノシン二リン酸(ADP)受容体であるP2Y12受容体を阻害する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トリメシン酸は、化学式C9H6O6で表される有機化合物である。ベンゼン環の1、3、5位にカルボン酸が結合している構造から、1,3,5-ベンゼントリカルボン酸とも称する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ドデカノール (dodecanol) は高級アルコールの一種。炭素数は12。ラウリン酸(ヤシ油)の還元によって得ることができる。 用途は界面活性剤の製造(ラウリル硫酸ナトリウム、ラウレス硫酸ナトリウムなど)、潤滑油。 エタノールの約半分の毒性があり、海洋生物にとっては非常に有害である。LD50は12800 mg/kg(ラット、経口)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エファビレンツ(efavirenz, EFV)は商標名のサスティバ(Sustiva)などで販売されるHIV/エイズの予防と治療に用いられるである。一般的に他の抗レトロウイルス薬との併用が勧められる。注射針による怪我やその他の潜在するウイルスに曝露した場合の感染予防に用いられる。単体または混合薬ので売られる。投与法は経口である。 主な副作用には発疹、吐き気、頭痛、疲労感、不眠症などがあげられる。一部の発疹にはスティーブンス・ジョンソン症候群など重度の副作用がある。その他の重度の副作用には、うつ病、、肝臓病、発作があげられる。妊娠中の使用は安全ではない。(NNRTI)の一つであり、その作用機序は逆転写酵素の働きを阻害することで効果がある。 エファビレンツが米国で医薬品として承認されたのは1998年である。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されており、最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。2015年の時点では後発医薬品としては入手できない。開発途上国での卸売価格は1か月分約$3.27~$9.15米ドルである。2015年時点の米国での一般的な1か月分の薬にかかる費用は$200米ドル以上である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メタンチオール (methanethiol) は化学式 CH3SH で表されるチオールの一種である。メチルメルカプタン (methyl mercaptan) とも呼ばれる。腐ったタマネギのにおいがする無色の気体である。天然にはある種の種実類やチーズなどにも含まれ、ヒトや動物の血液、脳、およびその他の組織中にも存在する。動物の糞から放出される。また、口臭や屁の悪臭の成分のひとつである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピルビン酸(ピルビンさん、Pyruvic acid)は有機化合物で、カルボン酸の一種。IUPAC命名法で 2-オキソプロパン酸 (2-oxopropanoic acid) と表される。α-ケトプロピオン酸 (α-ketopropionic acid) あるいは焦性ブドウ酸 (pyroracemic acid) とも呼ばれる。水、エタノール、エーテルなど、さまざまな極性溶媒や無極性溶媒と任意な比率で混和する。酢酸に似た酸味臭を示す。2位のカルボニル基を還元すると乳酸となる。 生体内では解糖系による糖の酸化で生成する。 ピルビン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ複合体の作用により補酵素Aと結合するとアセチルCoAとなり、クエン酸回路や脂肪酸合成系に組み込まれる。 また、グルタミン酸からアミノ基を転移されるとアラニンになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルカゴン ( Glucagon ) とは、29アミノ酸残基からなるペプチドホルモンの一種であり、タンパク質およびアミノ酸( Amino Acid )の代謝に重要な機能を持つ。分子量3,485。インスリン( Insulin' )とともに血糖値( Blood Glucose Levels, Blood Sugar Concentration )の制御に関係する重要なホルモンの一つである。 インスリンは血糖値を低下させるが、グルカゴンはそれとは逆に血糖値を上昇させるホルモンの一つであり、人体が低血糖になるのを防ぐため、肝細胞に働きかけることでグリコーゲンを分解するよう信号を送り、血糖値の上昇を促進する(血糖値を低下させるホルモンはインスリンのみであるが、血糖値を上昇させるホルモンはグルカゴン以外にも複数備わっている)。主に膵臓のランゲルハンス島のA細胞(α細胞)で生合成・分泌されるほかに、消化管からも分泌される。 1923年、キンボール( Kimball )とマーリン( Murlin )が、膵臓からの抽出物から発見した。「膵外グルカゴン」は「腸管グルカゴン」とも呼ばれ、胃底部に最も多く分布する。発見者は小野一幸。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アンゲリカ酸(アンゲリカさん、Angelic acid)、アンゼリカ酸は不飽和カルボン酸の一種である。IUPAC名は (Z)-2-メチルブタ-2-エン酸 (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid。セイヨウトウキ(アンゼリカ、学名 Angelica archangelica)の根から、ルートヴィヒ・ブフナー (Ludwig Andreas Buchner) によって1842年に発見された。そのほかセリ科の植物などに含まれる。 カルボキシル基の隣に炭素-炭素二重結合を持ち、チグリン酸のシス・トランス異性体である。揮発性がある無色の結晶で、刺激性のある酸味とにおいを持つ。以前は鎮静剤として用いられていた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ビオチン(英: biotin)は、ビタミンB群に分類される水溶性ビタミンの一種で、ビタミンB7(英: vitamin B7)とも呼ばれるが、欠乏症を起こすことが稀なため、単にビオチンと呼ばれることも多い。栄養素のひとつ。古い呼称でビタミンH、補酵素R。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルタル酸(グルタルさん、Glutaric acid)は構造式 HOOC–(CH2)3–COOH で表されるカルボン酸の一つ。IUPAC命名法では1,5-ペンタン二酸(1,5-pentanedioic acid)またはプロパン-1,3-ジカルボン酸(propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid)である。無色からわずかに薄い黄色の結晶または結晶性粉末で、水に可溶、アルコール、エーテルに易溶。融点95~98℃、沸点200℃、分子量132.11。CAS登録番号は110-94-1。 グルタル酸は、トリプトファンの代謝経路であるグルタル酸経路や、代謝において最も重要なクエン酸回路に関与している。2位にアミノ基が結合した2-アミノグルタル酸は、重要なアミノ酸であるグルタミン酸として知られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    tert-ブチルアミン(ターシャリーブチルアミン、英: tert-Butylamine)は、tert-ブチル基を持ち、化学式C4H11Nで表される脂肪族アミンの一種。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アミノグアニジン(AminoguanidineまたはPimagedine)は曾て糖尿病性腎症治療薬として開発されていた化合物である。ジアミンオキシダーゼや一酸化窒素合成酵素を阻害する。と反応して(AGEs)を減少させる。ロケット燃料としても使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アピキサバン(Apixaban、開発コードBMS-562247-01)は、血栓塞栓症の治療・予防に用いられる、経口投与が可能な抗凝固剤の1つである。商品名エリキュース。血液凝固因子の1種であるXa因子を薬剤そのものが阻害する、に分類される。また、第Xa因子は酵素なので、酵素阻害剤に分類される薬剤でもある。なお、肝代謝型(肝排泄型)の薬剤としても知られる。 欧州で2012年4月に、日本で2012年12月に、米国で2012年12月に承認された。当初の承認は心房細動患者の血栓症予防であったが、2014年〜2015年に静脈血栓塞栓症の治療と再発予防について追加承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ドデカン(Dodecane)は、炭素数12の直鎖アルカンである。常温常圧で無色の液体。可燃性があり、日本では消防法により危険物第4類に指定されている。他のアルカンと同様、無極性溶媒によくとける。355の構造異性体がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ラクトース(Lactose)または乳糖(にゅうとう)は、二糖類の低甘味度甘味料。ショ糖の0.4倍の甘味を有する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    環状グアノシン一リン酸(Cyclic guanosine monophosphate、cGMP)は、グアノシン三リン酸(GTP)から誘導されるである。cGMPは環状アデノシン一リン酸と同様にセカンドメッセンジャーとして利用される。ペプチドホルモンが細胞膜に結合するとプロテインキナーゼを活性化させる作用がよく知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スペルミジン (spermidine) はポリアミンに分類される有機化合物で、の際にRNAポリメラーゼの一種である酵素を活性化するのに利用されることがある。 一酸化窒素合成酵素 (nNOS) を阻害する、DNAへの結合・誘発作用を持つ、T4 ポリヌクレオチドキナーゼ活性を誘起する、などの特徴がある。DNA結合タンパク質の精製に利用することもできる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    タモキシフェン(Tamoxifen、TAM)とは、抗悪性腫瘍剤(抗がん剤)の一種。イギリスICI社(現アストラゼネカ社)によって1963年に開発された非ステロイド性のである。クエン酸塩が、ノルバデックス(販売:アストラゼネカ)などの商品名で市販されている。 世界保健機関 (WHO) の下部組織によるIARC発がん性リスク一覧のグループ1に属する。ヒトに対する発癌性の十分な証拠がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インドリン(Indoline)は、複素環式化合物である。ベンゼンの六員環と窒素を含む五員環が一辺を共有して結合した構造をしている。窒素原子の位置が違う異性体にイソインドリンがある。酸化型はインドールである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    塩化銅(II)(えんかどう に、英: copper(II) chloride)は、化学式が CuCl2 と表される銅の塩化物である。無水物と二水和物がある。無水物は褐色がかった黄色であり、二水和物は青緑色の結晶である。潮解性があり、無水物は吸湿性もある。水和物は110℃で無水物になる。993℃まで熱すると、塩化銅(I)と塩素に分解する。水に溶けやすく、メタノール、エタノール、アセトン、酢酸エチルなどに可溶。CAS登録番号は[7447-39-4]。有毒で、毒物及び劇物取締法により、劇物に指定されている。また、電気分解によって、塩素と銅に分解できることから中学校の理科で電気分解の学習にも用いられる。花火の緑色の発色剤としても用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    O-アセチルセリン(O-acetylserine)は、α-アミノ酸の一つで、構造式がHO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3の化合物である。細菌や植物でシステイン生合成の中間体となる。 (EC 2.3.1.30)によるセリンのアセチル化によって生合成され、システインシンターゼ(EC 2.5.1.47)によって、硫黄源を用いてシステインに変換されると同時に酢酸を放出する。 HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OH → HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3 → HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アンモニウム(ammonium)は、化学式NH4+の分子イオンである。アンモニア(NH3)のプロトン化によって形成されるオニウムイオンである。アンモニウムは、NH4+の1つ以上の水素原子が有機基に置き換わってできる、陽電荷を持った、またはプロトン化置換基を持つアミンや、第四級アンモニウムカチオン(NR4+)に対する一般名でもある。「アンモニウムイオン」とも呼ばれるが、「アンモニウム」という用語自体がイオンの名前である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ポナチニブ(Ponatinib、開発コード:AP24534)は、慢性期慢性骨髄性白血病 (CML)およびフィラデルフィア染色体陽性(Ph+)急性リンパ性白血病(ALL)治療のための経口薬で、多標的のチロシンキナーゼ阻害剤である。CMLの中にはT315I変異を有するものがあり、イマチニブ等の治療に抵抗性を示すが、ポナチニブは、このようなタイプの腫瘍に効果を示す様に設計されている。 米国食品医薬品局は、2012年12月に本剤を承認候補薬として認定したが、「生命を脅かす血栓や重度の血管狭窄のリスクがある」として、2013年10月31日に販売を一時停止させた。その後、添付文書に新たな「黒枠警告」が設置され、本剤を使用する事によるリスクとベネフィットをより適切に評価するための「リスク評価および軽減戦略」が策定され、2013年12月20日に停止が一部解除された。 日本では、2016年1月に大塚製薬が製造販売承認申請を行い、同年9月に承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カスタノスペルミン (castanospermine) は、オーストラリアビーンズ (Castanospermum australe) の種から初めて単離されたインドリジジンアルカロイドである。数種のグルコシダーゼの強力な阻害剤であり、抗ウイルス活性をもつ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    c-Fosは、レトロウイルスのがん遺伝子v-fosのホモログであるがん原遺伝子(ヒトではFOS)にコードされるタンパク質である。c-Fosはラット線維芽細胞において、FBJ MSV(Finkel–Biskis–Jinkins murine osteogenic sarcoma virus)と呼ばれるウイルスの形質転換遺伝子との類似性から発見された。c-FosはFosファミリーの転写因子であり、Fosファミリーには他に、、が含まれる。c-Fosはとヘテロ二量体を形成してAP-1複合体となり、標的遺伝子のプロモーターやエンハンサー領域のAP-1特異的部位のDNAに結合することで、細胞外のシグナルを遺伝子発現の変化へと変換する。c-Fosは多くの細胞機能で重要な役割を果たしており、さまざまながんで過剰発現していることが知られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グリチルレチン酸(Glycyrrhetinic acid)は、甘草から得られるグリチルリチン酸の加水分解によって得られるβ-アミリン(オレアナン)系の五環式テルペノイド誘導体の一つ。アロエやキニーネのような薬品の苦味を緩和するための調味料として用いられる。胃潰瘍の治療に効果的であり、去痰剤としての特性もある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メチラポン(Metyrapone)は副腎機能障害の診断や、時としてクッシング症候群の治療に使用される薬物の一つである。11-β-ヒドロキシラーゼを阻害することによりコルチゾールの合成を抑制する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    テトラヒドロゲストリノン (tetrahydrogestrinone) とは、によって開発されたアナボリックステロイドである。THG、クリア (the clear) とも呼ばれる。アンドロゲン受容体とプロゲステロン受容体に親和性があるが、エストロゲン受容体にはない。この薬物は、禁止薬物のアナボリックステロイドであるとと深い関連のあるデザイナードラッグだと考えられている。また、2005年に予定されていた認可より前の2003年には、アメリカ食品医薬品局(FDA)が認可していない新薬としても言及されていた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トリグリム (triglyme) とは、有機化学で用いられる高沸点の溶媒の一種。別名としてトリグライム、トリエチレングリコールジメチルエーテルとも呼ばれる。 triglyme は triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether の略。 トリエチレングリコールの2つのヒドロキシ基をメチル化した構造を持つ。水、各種アルコール、ジエチルエーテル、各種炭化水素系の溶媒と混和する。 トリグリムは主に化学反応の溶媒として用いられる。金属カチオンにキレート配位して対アニオンを活性化させることができる。そのため、グリニャール試薬や金属ヒドリドなどの金属化合物を反応剤とする場合に反応速度を上げる目的で用いられる。 この溶媒は塩基性に強く、強塩基存在下に加熱しても通常は安定である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    クリゾチニブ (英語: Crizotinib) は、ALK(未分化リンパ腫キナーゼ)および阻害薬であり、ALK融合遺伝子陽性の切除不能な進行・再発の非小細胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer、略称:NSCLC)の治療に用いられる。商品名はザーコリ。また、米国ではROS1陽性転移性NSCLC治療薬としても承認されている。未分化大細胞型リンパ腫、神経芽細胞腫、その他固形進行癌の治療での安全性および有効性について臨床試験が実施されている。開発コードPF-02341066。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フルクトース (fructose)、または果糖(かとう、fruit sugar)は、糖の一種であり、単糖の一つで、三文字表記はFruである。水溶性の白色の結晶であり、全ての糖の中で最も多く水に溶ける。フルクトースは、ハチミツ、木に成る果実、ベリー類、メロン、ある種の根菜に多量に含まれている。毎年240,000トンの結晶フルクトースが合成されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アリルアミン(または、3-アミノプロペン、3-アミノプロピレン、モノアリルアミン、2-プロペンアミン、2-プロペン-1-アミン)は、化学式C3H7Nのアミンの有機化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    レスベラトロール(英語: resveratrol)はスチルベノイド(スチルベン誘導体)ポリフェノールの一種。系統名は3,5,4'-トリヒドロキシ-trans-スチルベン。いくつかの植物でファイトアレキシンとして機能しており、またブドウの果皮などにも含まれる抗酸化物質として知られる。 1939年、北海道帝国大学の高岡道夫により有毒植物バイケイソウ(Veratrum album)から発見され(有毒成分ではない)、レゾルシノール(Resorcinol)構造を有することから命名された。 レスベラトロールは赤ワインに含まれることから、フレンチパラドックスとの関連が指摘されており、心血管関連疾患の予防効果が期待されている。 レスベラトロールは寿命延長作用が、酵母、線虫、ハエ、魚類の研究で報告され、2006年には「Nature」誌にてヒトと同じ哺乳類であるマウスの寿命を延長させるとの成果が発表され、種を超えた寿命延長作用を持つとして大きな注目を集めた。 マウスなどのモデル生物・実験動物を用いた研究では、寿命延長・抗炎症・抗癌・認知症予防・放射線による障害の抑止・血糖降下、脂肪の合成や蓄積に関わる酵素の抑制などの効果が報告されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ノルトリプチリン (nortriptyline) は、抗うつ薬として用いられる有機化合物の一種。第1世代の三環系抗うつ薬として知られ、うつ病、うつ状態などの治療に用いられる。脳内神経末端へのノルアドレナリン、セロトニンの再取り込みを阻害する。無臭で水に不溶。 塩酸塩が、商品名ノリトレンで大日本住友製薬から販売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エトポシド(Etoposide)とは、メギ科の植物Podophyllum peltatum あるいはP.emodi の根茎から抽出した結晶性成分であるポドフィロトキシンを原料とし、1966年に合成された抗悪性腫瘍剤(抗がん剤)。商品名は、ラステット(販売:日本化薬)、ベプシド(販売:ブリストル・マイヤーズ)。VP-16という略号で表されることもある。 WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フェノール (英: phenol、benzenol) は、 * 広義には、芳香環(特にフェニル基のRの部分)に水酸基(ヒドロキシ基)が結合した化合物全般である「フェノール類」を指す。化学式はArOHで表される(Arはベンゼン環やナフタレン環など)。 * 狭義には、フェノール類のうち もっとも簡単な化合物であるヒドロキシベンゼン、つまりベンゼンの水素原子の一つが水酸基(ヒドロキシル基)に置換された化合物のこと。石炭酸。本記事では、この物質を中心に解説する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヒドロコルチゾン(Hydrocortisone)は、副腎皮質ホルモンのコルチゾールが医薬品として販売される際の成分名。急性副腎不全、先天性副腎過形成症、高カルシウム血症、甲状腺炎、関節リウマチ、皮膚炎、気管支喘息、慢性閉塞性肺疾患に使われる。口腔、外用、または注射で利用できる。長期にわたって使用してから中止する際は、ゆっくりやめていく。ステロイド外用薬では日本での格付け5段階中4の酪酸プロピオン酸ヒドロコルチゾン(商品名パンデル)、2のミディアムの医薬品ヒドロコルチゾン酪酸エステル(商品名ロコイド)。 副作用には、気分の変動、感染症の危険性の増加、浮腫がある。長期的な使用による一般的な副作用には骨粗鬆症、腹痛、身体虚弱、痣、カンジダ症がある。妊婦における使用の安全性は不明。抗炎症作用と免疫抑制作用が作用する。 ヒドロコルチゾンは1955年に発見された。 WHO必須医薬品の一覧に収載されている。一般医薬品も利用できる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アグマチン(英: Agmatine、独: Agmatin)は、アルギニンの脱炭酸化生成物であり、ポリアミン生合成の中間体である。神経伝達物質であると推測されている。脳で生産され、シナプス小胞に貯蔵される。膜の脱分極によって放出され、によって尿素とプトレシンに分解されて不活化される。アグマチンはα2-アドレナリン受容体とイミダゾリン結合部位に結合し、NMDA型グルタミン酸受容体やカチオンリガンド依存性イオンチャネルをブロックするほか、一酸化窒素合成酵素の働きを阻害または増強する。また、ペプチドホルモンの放出を促進する作用も持つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リポ酸(lipoic acid、別名:α-リポ酸、チオクト酸)は、多数の酵素の補助因子として欠かせない光学活性のある有機化合物である。抗酸化物質。カルボキシル基と環状のジスルフィドを含んでいる。生物学上で重要なのはR体である。リポ酸の酸化体は、還元体はジヒドロリポ酸である。 メタアナリシスでは糖尿病の指標改善や、少しではあるが体重減少効果が明らかになっている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    α-シヌクレイン (あるふぁ-しぬくれいん) はSNCA 遺伝子によってエンコードされるアミノ酸140残基からなるタンパク質。 このタンパクの断片が、アルツハイマー病に蓄積するアミロイド中の (主な構成成分であるアミロイドベータとは別の) 成分として発見され、もとのタンパク質がNACP (Non-Abeta component precursor 非アミロイド成分の前駆体) と命名された。後にこれがシビレエイ属のシヌクレインタンパクと相同であることがわかり、ヒトα-シヌクレインと呼ばれるようになった。 α-シヌクレインの蓄積は、パーキンソン病をはじめとする神経変性疾患 (いわゆるシヌクレイノパチー) の原因とされている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    オクチルアルコール (octyl alcohols) または オクタノール (octanols) とは、炭素数8の脂肪族一価アルコールの総称である。 n-オクタノール、イソオクチルアルコール、2-エチルヘキサノールなど、構造異性体が存在する。このうち、2-エチルヘキサノールについては当該記事を参照。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    Mycは、転写因子をコードする遺伝子ファミリーであり、かつがん原遺伝子のファミリーである。Mycファミリーは、関連する3つのヒト遺伝子c-Myc()、l-Myc()、n-Myc(MYCN)から構成される。c-Myc(単にMyc、MYCと呼ばれることもある)はこのファミリーで最初に発見された遺伝子であり、名称はウイルス遺伝子v-mycとの相同性に由来する。 がんでは、c-Mycはしばしば恒常的に発現している。c-Mycによって多くの遺伝子の発現が上昇し、その一部は細胞増殖に関与しているため、がんの形成に寄与することとなる。c-Mycと関係した染色体転座は、バーキットリンパ腫の症例の大部分で重要な役割を果たしている。c-Myc遺伝子の恒常的なアップレギュレーションは頸部、大腸、胸部、肺、胃の癌腫でも観察されている。そのため、Mycは抗がん剤の有望な標的であると考えられている。残念ながら、Mycは抗がん剤の標的として適さないいくつかの特徴を持っているため、タンパク質自身を標的とする低分子化合物ではなく、MycをコードするmRNAを標的とするなど、間接的にタンパク質に作用することが必要である。 ヒトゲノムでは、c-Mycはに位置しており、への結合を介して全遺伝子の15%の発現を調節していると考えられている。 典型的な転写因子としての役割に加えて、N-Mycはヒストンアセチル化酵素をリクルートする可能性がある。これによって、ヒストンのアセチル化を介して全体的なクロマチン構造の調節が可能となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ブロモクリプチン(英: Bromocriptine、商品名 Parlodel(パーロデル)など)は、下垂体腫瘍、 パーキンソン病(PD)、高プロラクチン血症 、神経弛緩薬悪性症候群、および2型糖尿病の治療に用いられる、エルゴリン誘導体でドーパミンアゴニスト。 1968年に特許を取得し、1975年に医療用として承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ゲフィチニブ(Gefitinib)は、上皮成長因子受容体 (EGFR) のチロシンキナーゼを選択的に阻害する内服抗がん剤。癌の増殖などに関係する特定の分子を狙い撃ちする分子標的治療薬の一種である。商品名はイレッサ (Iressa) で、アストラゼネカが製造・販売。褐色の錠剤で一錠250mgのゲフィチニブを含有する。ゲフィチニブ製剤は手術不能または再発した非小細胞肺癌に対する治療薬として用いられる。 イレッサは2002年7月5日、世界に先駆けて日本で承認され、2003年5月5日、アメリカ食品医薬品局 (FDA) での承認を含め、いくつかの国で承認を受けた。しかし、無作為比較臨床試験(ISEL試験、後述)の結果、プラセボと比較して生存期間を延長することができなかったため、2005年1月4日アストラゼネカは欧州医薬品局 (EMEA) への承認申請を取り下げ、また2005年6月17日、FDAは本薬剤の新規使用を原則禁止とした。その後2009年7月1日、欧州医薬品局は、後述のINTEREST試験とIPASS試験の2つの無作為化第III相臨床試験の結果をもとに、成人のEGFR遺伝子変異陽性の局所進行または転移を有する非小細胞肺癌を対象にイレッサの販売承認を行った。2009年現在イレッサを承認している国は、日本を含めたアジア諸国、欧州、オーストラリア、メキシコ、アルゼンチンである。ゲフィチニブは白色から黄白色の粉末。開発コード名ZD1839。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シアン化物中毒(シアンかぶつちゅうどく、英: cyanide poisoning)は多くの種類のシアン化物にさらされることによって起こる中毒である。シアン化合物中毒(シアンかごうぶつちゅうどく)、シアン中毒(シアンちゅうどく)、青酸中毒(せいさんちゅうどく)とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ホメピゾール(Fomepizole、別名:4-メチルピラゾール)は、エチレングリコールまたはメタノール中毒ならびにその疑い例の解毒に用いる医薬品である。単独投与またはダイアライザーによる透析と並行して用いる。それとは別に、錯体化学での4-メチルピラゾールの挙動が研究されている。WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    4-ヒドロキシベンズアルデヒド(4-hydroxybenzaldehyde)は、3種あるヒドロキシベンズアルデヒドの異性体の一つである。ラン科のオニノヤガラやGaleola faberi から発見されている。バニラではバニリンの生合成中間体となっている。 デーキン反応によってヒドロキノンと、対応するカルボン酸に変換される。 代謝酵素として、4-ヒドロキシベンズアルデヒドデヒドロゲナーゼがニンジンから発見されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    タウロコール酸 (Taurocholic acid)は、脂肪を乳化することのできる融解性の透明な黄色の胆汁酸である。胆汁酸であるコール酸がタウリンと抱合したものである。ヒトの胆汁酸のうちの三分の一程度はこの物質である。生合成はコリルCoAとタウリンの反応である。 医薬的用法として、利胆剤や胆汁分泌促進剤として用いられている。 商業的な生産方法では、食肉産業の副生成物である牛の胆汁から作られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ニトロベンゼン (nitrobenzene) は、有機化合物で、ベンゼン環にニトロ基が置換した構造を持つ。ニトロベンゾール (nitrobenzol)、ミルバン油 (oil of mirbane) とも呼ばれる。黄色油状で甘い味覚がある。有毒で水に溶けにくい。杏仁豆腐のような、あるいは桃を腐らせたような芳香を持つ。日本法における劇物。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シュウ酸(シュウさん、蓚酸、英: oxalic acid)は、構造式 HOOC–COOH で表される、もっとも単純なジカルボン酸。二つのカルボキシ基を背中合わせにくっつけた分子である。IUPAC命名法ではエタン二酸(「二」はカタカナの「ニ」ではなく漢数字の「二」) (ethanedioic acid)。1776年、カール・ヴィルヘルム・シェーレによりカタバミ (oxalis) から初めて単離されたことから命名された。 命名の由来にもなったように、植物に多く含まれる。漢字の「蓚」はタデ科のスイバを意味し、また中国語でも植物由来の「草酸」の名を持つ。タデ科(他にギシギシ、イタドリなど)、カタバミ科、アカザ科(アカザ、ホウレンソウなど)の植物には水溶性シュウ酸塩(シュウ酸水素ナトリウムなど)が、サトイモ科(サトイモ、ザゼンソウ、マムシグサなど)の植物には不溶性シュウ酸塩(シュウ酸カルシウムなど)が含まれる。ヤマノイモ科の植物の根菜から作るとろろが肌に付くと痒みを生じるのは、シュウ酸カルシウムの針状結晶が肌に刺さって刺激を受ける為である。 カルシウムイオンと強く結合する性質(劇性)があり、体内に入るとアシドーシスに傾いた血液中でカルシウムと結合して結石などを生じる。このため毒物及び劇物取締法により劇物(毒物ではない)に指定されている。 還元性があるため、滴定によく使われる。また、染料原料や漂白剤としても用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ベンゾイミダゾール (Benzimidazole) は分子式C7H6N2で表される有機化合物で、ベンゼン環とイミダゾール環が一辺を共有して結合した複素環式化合物である。自然界において最も重要なベンゾイミダゾール化合物は、N-リボシルジメチルベンゾイミダゾールであり、ビタミンB12ではコバルトが軸方向に配位している。 一般的にはとo-フェニレンジアミンの縮合によって作られる。 C6H4(NH2)2 + HC(OCH3)3 → C6H4N(NH)CH + 3 CH3OH ベンゾイミダゾール化合物は寄生虫駆除剤や殺菌剤として生産されている。これらはチューブリンに結合し微小管の重合を阻害する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    炭酸水素塩(たんさんすいそえん、hydrogencarbonate)または重炭酸塩(じゅうたんさんえん、Bicarbonate)は炭酸水素イオンを含む、水素塩(酸性塩)の一種である。リチウムを除くアルカリ金属塩、カドミウム塩、およびアンモニウム塩などが固体の結晶として単離されているが、アルカリ土類金属その他の炭酸水素塩は、これらの炭酸塩と過剰の二酸化炭素の反応により水溶液中でのみ存在し、固体として分離しない。 アルカリ金属塩も水溶液の加熱および、固体の200℃程度の加熱により分解して炭酸塩となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    β-カロテン(ベータカロテン、ベータカロチン、β-carotene)は、植物に豊富に存在する赤橙色色素の一つ。両末端にβ環を持つ最も一般的なカロテンである。ビタミンAの前駆体(不活性型)である。テルペノイドの一つであり、水には溶けないが脂溶性は大きい。 分子構造はKarrerらによって推定された。自然界ではβ-カロテン-15,15'-モノオキシゲナーゼ(EC 1.14.99.36) の酵素反応を受ける。β-カロテノイドはゲラニルゲラニル二リン酸から生合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    タファミジス(Tafamidis)は、成人のトランスチレチンアミロイドーシス(ATTR)の疾患進行を遅らせるために使用される医薬品である。本薬は、(FAC)および家族性アミロイドポリニューロパチー(FAP)といった遺伝性のATTRと、(wtATTR、以前は老人性全身性アミロイドーシスと呼ばれていた)の治療に使用される。本薬は、トランスチレチンというタンパク質の四次構造(4量体)を安定化させる事で効果を発揮する。ATTRでは、トランスチレチン4量体がバラバラになり、神経や心臓などの組織に害を及ぼす塊(アミロイド)を形成する。経口投与で用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カルバモイルリン酸(カルバモイルリンさん、Carbamoyl phosphate)とは、生化学的に重要なアニオンである。尿素回路では、オルニチンと反応してシトルリンにする反応に関わることで過剰な窒素の体外への排出を行っている。また、ピリミジンの生合成にも関わっている。 重炭酸塩とアンモニアとリン酸から、ATPを用いて作られる。合成は、カルバモイルリン酸シンターゼにより触媒され、以下のように進む。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アルドステロン (英語: Aldosterone) は、副腎皮質の球状帯から分泌されるホルモンである。鉱質コルチコイドの一種である。1953年、シンプソンとテートによって初めて単離された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    テトラブロモビスフェノールA(Tetrabromobisphenol A、TBBPA)は、臭素系難燃剤の一種である。市販されているものは黄色を呈するが、純粋なものは白色の固体である。難燃剤としては最も一般的なものの1つである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    GDP-マンノース-3,5-エピメラーゼ(GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase、EC 5.1.3.18)は、以下の化学反応を触媒する酵素である。 GDP-マンノースGDP-L-ガラクトース 従って、この酵素の基質はのみ、生成物はのみである。 この酵素は異性化酵素、特に炭水化物及びその誘導体に作用するラセマーゼ、エピメラーゼに分類される。系統名は、GDP-マンノース-3,5-エピメラーゼ(GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase)である。 この酵素は、アスコルビン酸及びアルダル酸の代謝に関与している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    1,2,4-トリアゾール(1,2,4-Triazole)はトリアゾールと呼ばれるC2H3N3という分子式を持つ化合物の1つで、炭素原子2個と窒素原子1個からなるを持つ。1,2,4-トリアゾールは芳香族性を持つ複素環式化合物である。 フルコナゾールやイトラコナゾールなどの抗真菌薬の骨格となっている。 1,2,4-トリアゾールはイミドとアルキルヒドラジンからEinhorn-Brunner反応で、もしくはアミドとヒドラジドからPellizzari反応で合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メチルマロン酸(メチルマロンさん、英: Methylmalonic acid)は、中央のCにメチル基が付加したマロン酸の誘導体であるジカルボン酸である。 メチルマロン酸に結合したCoAであるメチルマロニルCoAは、メチルマロニルCoAムターゼによりスクシニルCoAに変化する。この反応でビタミンB12が補因子として必要とされる。このようにしてメチルマロン酸はクレブス回路(クエン酸回路)に入り、補充反応の一端を担うことになる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ビンキュリン(vinculin)は、アダプタータンパク質(adaptor protein)の1つで、細胞接着の接着装置を構成する細胞膜裏打ちタンパク質の1つである。インテグリン (integrin) が細胞骨格(cytoskeleton)のアクチンフィラメント に結合するのを仲介し、細胞接着・伸展を制御する。ビンキュリンファミリー(vinculin family)を形成している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    APC(adenomatous polyposis coli)は、ヒトではAPC遺伝子によってコードされるタンパク質である。DP2.5(deleted in polyposis 2.5)としても知られる。APCタンパク質はβ-カテニンの濃度を負に制御する調節因子であり、細胞接着に関与すると相互作用する。APC遺伝子の変異は大腸がんにつながる可能性がある。 APCはがん抑制遺伝子に分類される。がん抑制遺伝子は、癌性腫瘍につながる可能性のある、無制御な細胞増殖を防ぐ。APC遺伝子から産生されるタンパク質は、細胞の腫瘍への成長が決定されるいくつかの細胞過程で重要な役割を果たしている。APCタンパク質は、どの頻度で細胞分裂を行うか、組織内で他の細胞とどのように接着するか、細胞がどのように極性化するか、三次元構造への形態変化、また細胞が組織内をまたは組織から離れて移動するかどうかの制御を助けている。このタンパク質は細胞分裂の際の染色体数の保証も助ける。APCタンパク質は主に他のタンパク質、特に細胞接着やシグナル伝達に関与するタンパク質のとの結合によってこれらの役割をこなしている。特に、APCタンパク質によるβ-カテニンの制御は重要である(Wntシグナル経路を参照)。β-カテニンの調節によって、細胞分裂促進遺伝子の高頻度での活性化が防がれ、細胞の過剰増殖が防止されている。 ヒトのAPC遺伝子はの長腕(q)のバンドq22.2(5q22.2)に位置している。APC遺伝子はIRESを含んでいることが示されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ペンタン(pentane)とは、炭素数5つの直鎖状のアルカンである。天然ガスや石油エーテル、ガソリン等に含まれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    クロルギリン(Clorgiline)は、不可逆でA選択的なモノアミン酸化酵素阻害薬で、科学研究用途に用いられる。構造的にパルギリンと関連する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キナリザリン (quinalizarin) または、1,2,5,8-テトラヒドロキシアントラキノン (1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone) は、化学式がC14H8O6の有機化合物である。テトラヒドロキシアントラキノンの異性体のうちの一つで、4つの水素原子がヒドロキシル基に置換したアントラキノン誘導体である。 キナリザリンは、プロテインキナーゼのCK2の阻害剤で、エモジンよりも強力かつ選択的である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    バルプロ酸ナトリウム(バルプロさんナトリウム、英語: Sodium valproate、略称: VPA)とは、2-プロピルペンタン酸のナトリウム塩である。すなわち、バルプロ酸とは2-プロピルペンタン酸の慣用名である。 バルプロ酸は特異な匂いを有する。これをナトリウム塩にしたために水溶性が向上するため、水に溶け易い。体内に吸収されたバルプロ酸は、を阻害するため、におけるGABAの量を増加させて、薬理作用を発揮するとされる。ただし、バルプロ酸には他にも生理活性を有する。 バルプロ酸ナトリウムは抗てんかん薬の1つとして利用される。世界保健機関のWHOエッセンシャル・ドラッグ・リストの中にも収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヒドロキシメチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ(hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase, HMGR)または3-ヒドロキシ-3-メチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase)は、コレステロールや他のイソプレノイドを合成するメバロン酸経路の律速酵素の一つである。この酵素には、ヒドロキシメチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ (NADPH)(EC 1.1.1.34)とヒドロキシメチルグルタリルCoAレダクターゼ(EC 1.1.1.88)の2種が存在し、前者は補酵素としてNADP、後者はNADが使われる。 この酵素の阻害剤はスタチンとして知られ、コレステロール降下剤として広く用いられている。 HMG-CoAレダクターゼは小胞体の膜に固定されており、7個の膜貫通ドメインを持つと長く考えられ、その活性点は細胞質基質中のカルボキシ末端ドメインに位置する。より最新の研究では、8個の膜貫通ドメインを含むことが証明されている。 ヒトではHMG-CoAレダクターゼの遺伝子は5番染色体の長腕(5q13.3-14)に位置する。この酵素はメバロン酸経路をもつ生物に普遍的に存在する。動物、植物を含む大部分の真核生物、そして一部のバクテリアにも存在している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インスリン様成長因子1(インスリンようせいちょういんし1、英: Insulin-like growth factor 1、略称: IGF-1、IGF-I)は、インスリンに類似した分子構造を持つホルモンである。小児の成長に重要な役割を果たし、成人においても同化作用を有する。ソマトメジンC(somatomedin C)とも呼ばれる。 IGF-1はヒトではIGF1遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。IGF-1は70アミノ酸からなる1本鎖ポリペプチドで、分子内に3つのジスルフィド結合を有する。IGF-1の分子量は7649である。 IGF-1の合成アナログであるは、成長障害の子供の治療に利用されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ノルアドレナリン(独: Noradrenalin、英: noradrenaline)は、化学式C8H11NO3のカテコールアミンにしてフェネチルアミンである。米国ではノルエピネフリン(norepinephrine)と称される。集中治療室や全身麻酔下手術において、重症患者の血圧を維持する上では不可欠の薬剤である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シルデナフィル(Sildenafil)は、勃起不全 (ED、男性機能不全)、および肺動脈性肺高血圧症の治療薬である。としてはファイザーのバイアグラ(Viagra) が商品名(商標)として、肺動脈性高血圧症の治療薬としてはレバチオ(Revatio)が商品名として用いられているほか、ファイザーの日本での特許切れにより、各社からの後発医薬品(ジェネリック医薬品)も存在する。投与はいずれもクエン酸塩の形態で経口にて行われる。 日本では1999年から製造と自費購入のみ認められてきたが、2022年2月に不妊治療で使われる医薬品16品を保険適用とすることが決まり、同年4月から早発排卵防止薬の「」や「」、と共に、処方許可要件を満たした医療機関から「勃起障害による男性不妊」と診断された上で不妊治療での用途に限り、バイアグラとシアリスが診療報酬適応になった。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    テトラメチルアンモニウム(Tetramethylammonium,TMA)またはテトラミンは、構造式(CH3)4N+(Me4N+)で表される最も単純な第四級アンモニウムカチオンである。中心の窒素原子に4つのメチル基が結合しており、ネオペンタンと等電子的である。正電荷を帯びており、対イオンと結合した状態でのみ単離される。一般的な塩としては、塩化テトラメチルアンモニウム、水酸化テトラメチルアンモニウム等がある。テトラメチルアンモニウム塩は、化学合成に使用され、薬理学的研究に広く用いられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセチルCoA (アセチルコエンザイムエー、アセチルコエー、Acetyl-CoA)は、アセチル補酵素Aの略で、化学式がC23H38P3N7O17Sで表される分子量が809.572 g/mol の有機化合物である。補酵素Aの末端のチオール基が酢酸とチオエステル結合したもので、主としてβ酸化やクエン酸回路、メバロン酸経路でみられる。メバロン酸経路では、テルペノイドは三分子のアセチルCoAを原料として合成される。 ヒトの体内では、消費されない過剰のアセチルCoAは、脂肪酸生合成の原料となり、中性脂肪を生成する(脂肪酸の合成の記事を参照)。そのため、アセチルCoAの代謝を抑制することで動脈硬化、高脂血症を防ぐ研究が進行中である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チオグリコール酸(チオグリコールさん、thioglycolic acid: TGA)とは、別名メルカプト酢酸とも呼ばれているカルボン酸の一種で、激しい悪臭と刺激臭を示す無色の液体。空気中で容易に酸化してジスルフィド(HO2CH2S-SCH2CO2H)を形成する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エスシタロプラム (Escitalopram) とは、選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬 (SSRI) と呼ばれる抗うつ薬の一つである。レクサプロの商品名で販売されている。日本では2011年4月より販売されている。 エスシタロプラムは、アメリカ合衆国では90年代からあるSSRIのシタロプラムの光学異性体のうちのS体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセタゾラミド (Acetazolamide) は、の一種である。錠剤、粉末、注射剤があり、商品名はダイアモックス(三和化学研究所)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スペクチノマイシン(Spectinomycin)とは真正細菌のStreptomyces spectabilis によって産生されるアミノグリコシド系抗生物質であり、淋菌感染症の治療に用いられる。塩酸塩がトロビシンとして商品化されている。臀部筋肉内注射で用いられる。 WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。 スペクチノマイシンは1961年に発見された。日本では1978年5月に承認された。米国ではトロビシンは2001年に供給が中止された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    糖質コルチコイド受容体またはグルココルチコイド受容体 (Glucocorticoid Receptor; GR) あるいはNR3C1(nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1)はステロイド受容体(核内受容体)スーパーファミリーに属する分子である。リガンド非結合時においては細胞質に優位に存在する。ステロイドホルモンであるヒドロコルチゾンに対する受容体として働く一方、リガンド依存的に核内移行して転写因子としても働く。GRにはGRαとGRβの2つのスプライシングバリアントが存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピペリジン(英語: Piperidine)は、有機化合物の1種で、6員環構造を持つ複素環式アミンである。胡椒の辛味成分ピペリンの構造中に存在し、胡椒(Piper)にちなんで名付けられた。ヘキサヒドロピリジン、ペンタメチレンイミンとも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リバーロキサバン(Rivaroxaban)は経口抗凝固薬の一つである。最初に開発されたである。商品名イグザレルト。消化管からの吸収率が高く、投与4時間後に第Xa因子の阻害効果が最大となり、効果は8〜12時間持続する。しかし第Xa活性は24時間以内では回復しないので、1日1回投与で用いられる。開発コードBAY 59-7939。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    オクタン (octane) は炭素を8個持つ飽和炭化水素の呼称である。石油(あるいはそれを分留したガソリン)中に含まれる。18種類の構造異性体が存在し、立体異性体までを考慮すると24種類になる。 IUPAC命名法によるオクタンは直鎖状 (CH3(CH2)6CH3) のn-オクタン(ノルマルオクタン、n-octane)であり、その融点は −60 ℃、沸点は 125 ℃。広義のオクタンは、C8H18 の分子式で表せるアルカンの各構造異性体をさす。 構造異性体のうち、3,4-ジメチルヘキサンはメソ体を持つ最小のアルカンである。2,2,4-トリメチルペンタン(イソオクタン)はガソリンのオクタン価の測定基準として使用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ウンデカン (Undecane) は、アルカン。ヘンデカンと呼ばれることもある。159 種類の構造異性体が存在する。可燃性・揮発性があり、常温常圧で無色の液体。CAS登録番号は [1120-21-4]。 ダニの一種 (Caloglyphus rodriguezi) では、ウンデカンをフェロモンとして利用している。ほか、昆虫界、植物界に散見する物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    17-ヒドロキシプロゲステロン(17-Hydroxyprogesterone、17OHP)は、糖質コルチコイドと性ホルモンの合成過程において生産される21炭素のステロイドホルモンである。 ホルモンとして、17-ヒドロキシプロゲステロンもプロゲステロン受容体と相互作用する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    BRCA1(breast cancer susceptibility gene I、乳がん感受性遺伝子I)とは、がん抑制遺伝子のひとつ。BRCA1遺伝子の変異により、遺伝子不安定性を生じ、最終的に乳癌や卵巣癌を引き起こす()。BRCA1の転写産物であるBRCA1タンパク質は他の多数の腫瘍抑制因子とともに核内で大きな複合体を形成し、相同性による遺伝子の修復に関わっている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アクリル酸(—さん、acrylic acid)は、化学式が CH2=CHCOOH の、もっとも簡単な不飽和カルボン酸である。IUPAC命名法では、2-プロペン酸(2-propenoic acid)と表される。融点 12 ℃、沸点 141.6 ℃の無色透明の液体で、特有の刺激臭を有する。CAS登録番号は[79-10-7]。酸解離定数(pKa)は4.25、粘度は1.3 mPa s(20℃)。 水、アルコール、エーテル、クロロホルムと混和する。 アクリル酸の工業的な合成法のひとつとしては、プロピレンの二段階酸化が挙げられる。プロピレンを金属触媒存在下に酸素で酸化してアクロレインとし、さらにもう一段階の酸化によりアクリル酸とする。一段目の酸化反応は、触媒表面におけるプロピレンのアリル位水素の引き抜きと格子酸素の挿入等を経て、アクロレインが生成して完了するとされ、触媒は Bi-Mo に各種金属が添加された複合金属酸化物が用いられている。二段目の酸化反応は、アクロレインのアルデヒド基からの水素引き抜きと酸素挿入によるアクリル酸への転換反応であり、触媒はMo-V に各種金属が添加された複合金属酸化物が用いられている。 アクリル酸は適当な重合開始剤、あるいは酸素などの作用により容易に重合し、(PAA)を与える。この重合体はカルボキシル基を多数持つために非常に親水性が高い。さらに架橋を加えて網目状としたポリマーは、ナトリウム塩の形とすると高吸水性ゲルとして優れた性能を示すことから、紙おむつ用などに用いられる。 アクリル酸をメチルエステルとしたアクリル酸メチル(methyl acrylate, MA)も、(PMA)などのポリマーの原料として重要である。 毒物及び劇物取締法により劇物に指定されている。また消防法による第4類危険物 第2石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シロマジン (Cyromazine) とは、トリアジン骨格を有する昆虫成長制御剤で、殺虫剤および殺ダニ剤として使用される。メラミンのシクロプロピル誘導体であり、幼虫の神経系に作用して、幼虫の脱皮阻害作用や蛹の変態阻害作用を示す。日本ではハモグリバエ類を対象として、1996年に非食用作物 (キク、ガーベラ) で、1999年には食用作物 (ナス、トマト、カボチャ、メロン等) で農薬登録された。 獣医学領域では、畜舎・鶏舎周辺のハエ駆除用殺虫剤として使われる。産卵鶏用のラーバデックスはハエ幼虫発育抑制剤だが、餌に混ぜて鶏に与えることで鶏糞に沸くウジを駆除するというユニークな用法 (フィードスルー) が特徴である。 従来は養鶏家が人手をかけて鶏糞に薬剤を散布していたが、多大な労力がかかるにもかかわらず散布ムラにより防除が不完全になるという問題があった。これに対し、ラーバデックスではいったん鶏に食べさせることで薬剤を糞中に均等に分散させるという戦略をとることにより、防除の確実性が上がるだけでなく、給餌とハエ防除が同時に行えるので養鶏家の労力が軽減されるという合理的なものになっている。 このほか、アクアリウムにおいてはイカリムシやチョウなど外部寄生虫に対する殺虫薬として用いられる(ただし日本では、魚類に対する動物用医薬品としては認可されていない)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ベンジルペニシリン(benzylpenicillin)は、最も質の高い()ペニシリンの一種である。一般的にはペニシリンGとして知られている。ペニシリンGは胃の塩酸に対して不安定であるため、通常非経口経路で投与される。非経口で投与されるため、フェノキシメチルペニシリン (Phenoxymethylpenicillin) よりも高い組織内濃度(つまり抗微生物活性)を達成可能である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ゾレドロン酸(Zoledronic acid)またはゾレドロネート(Zoledronate)は、ビスホスホネート系製剤の1つであり白色の結晶性化合物。経静脈投与で使用される。骨粗鬆症や、悪性腫瘍の合併症としての高カルシウム血症などの治療に用いられる。日本での商品はリクラストまたはゾメタ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    FAK(focal adhesion kinase、フォーカルアドヒージョンキナーゼ、焦点接着キナーゼ、接着斑キナーゼ)またはPTK2(protein tyrosine kinase 2)は、ヒトではPTK2遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。FAKは関連プロテインキナーゼであり、細胞接着(細胞が互いにまたは周囲の環境とどのように結合するか)や拡散過程(細胞がどのように移動するか)に関与している。FAKが遮断されると、がん細胞は移動性が低下し転移能が低下することが示されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    リトナビル(Ritonavir、治験番号 ABT-538、略号RTV)は、抗レトロウイルス効果を持つの一つであり、ヒト免疫不全ウイルスやC型肝炎ウイルス感染症の治療に使用される医薬品である。ノービア、カレトラ(ロピナビルとの合剤)、ヴィキラックス(オムビタスビル、パリタプレビルとの合剤)の商品名でアッヴィから製造販売されている。 リトナビルはHAART療法に取り入れられている場合が多いが、抗ウイルス効果よりもむしろ他のプロテアーゼ阻害薬の分解抑制を期待して使用される。この阻害効果によって、他のプロテアーゼ阻害薬の血中濃度が上昇し、より少量の投与で薬効を期待することができる。この考え方の下でロピナビルとの合剤が開発されている。 オムビタスビルおよびパリタプレビルとの3剤合剤がC型肝炎の治療に用いられる。日本では、2022年2月10日に新型コロナウイルス感染症の治療薬として医薬品医療機器等法14条の3に基づき特例承認されたニルマトレルビル・リトナビル(商品名: パキロビッドパック)にもリトナビルが含まれる。 リトナビルはWHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コビメチニブ(Cobimetinib、開発コードGDC-0973、XL-518)は抗がん剤として開発中のの一つである。BRAF阻害薬との併用でいくつかの癌の治療効果が期待されている。早期臨床試験の結果、ベムラフェニブとの併用によりBRAF V600変異陽性悪性黒色腫患者の無増悪生存期間をベムラフェニブ単剤より3.7ヶ月延長した。第III相臨床試験は2017年に完了する見込みである。2014年の臨床試験の結果を元に、米国および欧州で承認申請された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フェニルピルビン酸(Phenylpyruvic acid)は、ピルビン酸の誘導体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ドコサヘキサエン酸(ドコサヘキサエンさん、Docosahexaenoic acid、略称:DHA)は、不飽和脂肪酸のひとつで、僅かに黄色を呈する油状物質。6つの二重結合を含む22個の炭素鎖をもつカルボン酸 (22:6) の総称であるが、通常は生体にとって重要な 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 位に全てシス型の二重結合をもつ、ω-3脂肪酸に分類される化合物を指し、エイコサペンタエン酸(EPA)やドコサペンタエン酸(DPA) とともに高度不飽和脂肪酸(PUFA) とも呼ばれている。必須脂肪酸の一つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トリメトプリム(英: trimethoprim)とは、主に尿路感染症の予防や治療に使用されるの抗生物質(正確には合成抗菌薬)の一つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チオトロピウム臭化物(Tiotropium bromide)は長時間(24時間)作用型抗コリン性気管支拡張薬であり、慢性閉塞性肺疾患(COPD)の症状軽減または気管支喘息の慢性期治療に用いられる。液剤と専用の噴霧器を組み合わせて用いる場合と、カプセルに入れた粉末を専用の器具に装填して用いる場合とがある。商品名スピリーバ。オロダテロールとの合剤(商品名スピオルト)がCOPD治療薬として承認されている。。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フマリルアセトアセターゼまたはフマリルアセト酢酸加水分解酵素(Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase)は、ヒトではFAH遺伝子でコードされる酵素である。 この酵素は、チロシン異化経路の最後の酵素である。FAH遺伝子の欠損や変異は、1型の遺伝性チロシン血症と関連する。 この酵素は、4-フマリルアセト酢酸のフマル酸とアセト酢酸への加水分解を触媒する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ミグルスタット(Miglustat)は、海外ではゴーシェ病I型(GD1)、日本ではニーマン・ピック病C型の治療に用いられる医薬品である。商品名ブレーザベス。開発コードOGT 918。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    6-ベンジルアミノプリン(6-Benzylaminopurine、ベンジルアデニン、benzyl adenine、BAP)は、植物の成長を刺激する第一世代の合成サイトカイニンである。花を咲かせ、細胞分裂を促進することによって果実を豊富にする効果がある。また、植物の呼吸キナーゼを抑制する効果があり、ポストハーベスト農薬として使用できる。 6-ベンジルアミノプリンは植物生理学者のによって初めて合成・実験された物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エリスロポエチン(英語: erythropoietin; 略称: EPO)とは、赤血球の産生を促進する造血因子の一つ(ホルモンともサイトカインとも)。分子量は約34000、165個のアミノ酸から構成されている。血液中のエリスロポエチン濃度は、貧血、多血症などの鑑別診断に用いられる。腎性貧血の治療に主に使用されているが、ドーピングにも使用され問題となっている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キサンチンデヒドロゲナーゼ(xanthine dehydrogenase、XDH)は、ヒトではXDH遺伝子にコードされているタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ビオラキサンチン(Violaxanthin)は、橙色の天然のキサントフィル色素であり、パンジーなどの様々な植物に含まれている。ゼアキサンチンのエポキシド化によって合成される。食品添加物として、E番号E161eの着色料として用いられる。欧州連合やアメリカ合衆国では使用が承認されていないが、オーストラリアやニュージーランドでは承認されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    α-ケトイソ吉草酸(アルファ-ケトイソきっそうさん、α-Ketoisovaleric acid)は、アミノ酸のバリンの代謝中間体の一つ。IUPAC名は3-メチル-2-オキソブタン酸である。2-オキソ-3-メチルブタン酸とも呼ばれる。 α-ケトイソイソ吉草酸は、(EC 2.6.1.42)によってバリンから合成され、3-メチル-2-オキソブタン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(EC 1.2.4.4)によってイソブチリルCoAに変換される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    二酸化炭素(にさんかたんそ、英: carbon dioxide)は、炭素の酸化物の一つで、化学式が と表される無機化合物である。化学式から「シーオーツー」と呼ばれる。地球温暖化対策の文脈などで、「カーボンフリー」「カーボンニュートラル」など「カーボン」が使われる事があるが、これは二酸化炭素由来の炭素を意味する。 二酸化炭素は温室効果を持ち、地球の気温を保つのに必要な温室効果ガスの一つである。しかし、濃度の上昇は地球温暖化の原因となる。 地球大気中の二酸化炭素をはじめ地球上で最も代表的な炭素の酸化物であり、炭素単体や有機化合物の燃焼によって容易に生じる。気体は炭酸ガス、固体はドライアイス、液体は液体二酸化炭素、水溶液は炭酸や炭酸水と呼ばれる。 多方面の産業で幅広く使われている()。日本では高圧ガス保安法容器保安規則第十条により、二酸化炭素(液化炭酸ガス)の容器(ボンベ)の色は緑色と定められている。温室効果ガスの排出量を示すための換算指標でもあり、メタンや亜酸化窒素(一酸化二窒素)、フロンガスなどが変換される。日本では2014年度で13.6億トンが総排出量として算出された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カプトプリル(Captopril)とはアンジオテンシン変換酵素阻害薬の一つである。アンジオテンシン変換酵素(ACE)を抑制することにより血圧を低下させる。さらにアルドステロン分泌の抑制による利尿作用を有する。高血圧、鬱血性心不全の治療に使用される。カプトプリルは初のACE阻害薬であり、新規作用機序ならびに新規開発手法の2つの意味で革新的と云われる。副作用として肺のブラジキニン増加による空咳が生じる。商品名カプトリル。経口投与薬で、1日3回服用の錠剤と1日2回服用のカプセル剤がある。 構造としては(S )-プロリン(L-プロリン)のN 置換体である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ノルバリン(Norvaline)は、C5H11NO2の化学式を持つアミノ酸で、バリンの異性体である。しばしば合成的に作られる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヒドロキシプロリン(Hydroxyproline)は天然に存在する二級環状アミノ酸(かつてはイミノ酸とも呼ばれた)の一種である。略称HYP。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インドキシル硫酸(インドキシルりゅうさん、3-indoxylsulfuric acid)はインドールが硫酸化した有機化合物である。慣用名はインディゴの前駆体の配糖体と同じインディカンである。体内では、トリプトファン由来のインドールが肝臓で硫酸抱合されて合成される。尿毒症毒素の原因物質といわれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アトラジン(Atrazine, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamine)-6-(isopropylamine)-s-triazine)はs-トリアジン環を持つ有機化合物。欧州連合では使用が禁じられているが、世界で最も多く使われる除草剤の一つ。「アトラジン」の名称以外にも商品名で呼ばれることも多い(日本ではシンジェンタから商品名「ゲザプリム®」で販売されている)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    サイクリン依存性キナーゼ1(サイクリンいぞんせいキナーゼ1、英: cyclin-dependent kinase 1、略称: CDK1)は高度に保存されたタンパク質で、セリン/スレオニンキナーゼとして機能する、細胞周期調節の主要因子である。 cell division cycle protein 2 homolog(cdc2 homolog)とも呼ばれる。出芽酵母Saccharomyces cerevsiae、分裂酵母Schizosaccharomyces pombeでよく研究されており、それぞれcdc28とcdc2遺伝子にコードされている。ヒトではCDK1はCDC2遺伝子にコードされている。CDK1はサイクリンと複合体を形成してさまざまな標的基質をリン酸化し(出芽酵母では75種類を超える基質が同定されている)、細胞周期を進行させる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    心房性ナトリウム利尿ペプチド(しんぼうせいナトリウムりにょうペプチド、英語名:Atrial Natriuretic Peptide、ANP )は、生理活性を持つアミノ酸28個からなるペプチドの1種であり、主に心房で生合成して貯蔵され、必要に応じて血液中に分泌され、ホルモンとして作用する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トランスコルチン(Transcortin)は、αグロブリンである。ヒトにおいては、SERPINA6遺伝子でコードされる。コルチコステロイド結合グロブリン(corticosteroid-binding globulin、CBG)やセルピンA6(serpin A6)とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ブロモデオキシウリジン(英: bromodeoxyuridine、5-ブロモ-2'-デオキシウリジン(5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)、略称: BrdU)は、チミジンのアナログとなる合成ヌクレオシドである。BrdUは生体組織内で増殖中の細胞を検出するために一般的に利用されている。5-ブロモデオキシシチジンの脱アミノ化によってBrdUが形成される。 BrdUは、DNA複製中にチミジンに置き換わって新生DNA鎖に取り込まれる。そのため、BrdUが取り込まれた細胞は活発にDNA複製を行っていることを示している。BrdUが取り込まれたことを検出するためには、BrdU特異的抗体が利用される(免疫染色を参照)。抗体の結合にはDNAの変性が必要であり、通常は熱または酸による処理が行われる。 BrdUは複製に伴って娘細胞へと受け継がれる。BrdUは生体への注入後、2年以上にわたって検出可能であることが示されている。 BrdUはDNA複製時にチミジンと置き換わるため、突然変異を引き起こす可能性があり、そのためBrdUの使用は健康被害を引き起こす可能性がある。ラベリングのために使用される濃度では放射性も骨髄毒性も持たないため、がん細胞増殖のin vivo研究で広く用いられている。しかし、放射線増感剤として使用される濃度ではBrdUは骨髄抑制作用を持ち、この目的での使用は限られている。 BrdUは、チミジンのCH3基が臭素原子に置き換わった構造をしている。そのため、DNAまたはRNAを含む結晶のX線回折実験に利用することができる。臭素原子は因子としてはたらき、X線回折のisomorphous differenceを検出するのに十分な影響を与えることもできる。 BrdUは、DNAメチル化によって引き起こされた、ヒストンとの相互作用による遺伝子サイレンシングを解除する。 BrdUは、水生環境や土壌環境中の特定の炭素源に応答する微生物の同定のためにも利用される。環境試料の培養物に特定の炭素源を添加すると、それを利用できる微生物の成長が引き起こされる。こうした微生物は生育する際にDNAにBrdUを取り込む。その後、微生物叢のDNAを単離し、immunocaptureによってBrdUでラベルされたDNAを精製する。ラベルされたDNAをシーケンシングすることにより、添加された炭素源の分解に加わった微生物群を同定することができる。しかしながら、環境試料中に存在するすべての微生物が新規DNA合成によってBrdUを取り込むことができるかどうかは定かではない。そのため、炭素源に応答するもののこの技術では検出されない微生物が存在する可能性がある。さらに、この技術にはAやTに富むゲノムを持つ微生物を同定しやすいバイアスが存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    パパベリン(英:papaverine)とは血管拡張・鎮痙剤のひとつ。ケシ属の植物に含まれるイソキノリン系のアルカロイド。オピオイド作動性はない。 消化管平滑筋を弛緩させることにより、過度の消化管の緊張による腹痛を緩解させる。パパベリンは消化管平滑筋だけでなく全ての平滑筋を弛緩させるため、血栓症の治療にも使用される。副作用として多汗症や肺炎などが報告され、特に健康食品として食されるの大量摂取による肺炎(閉塞性細気管支炎)では、その主要因として考えられているが、国立医薬品食品衛生研究所等で検査したところ検出されていない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    3-メチルピリジン(3-methylpyridine)あるいは、3-ピコリン(3-picoline)は、化学式3-CH3C5H4Nで表される有機化合物。無色の液体であり、製薬や農業などの分野で利用されるピリジン誘導体を合成する際の前駆体として用いられる。ピリジンと同様、強い不快臭を持っており、弱い塩基性を示す。 日本では、消防法による危険物(第四類 第二石油類 水溶性)に指定されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ペラミビル (Peramivir) はアメリカのバイオクリスト社 (BioCryst Pharmaceuticals) 開発のインフルエンザ用抗ウイルス薬である。日本での商品名は「ラピアクタ」。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    クロルゾキサゾン(英: chlorzoxazone)は、ベンゾオキサゾール系筋弛緩剤の1種であり、中枢神経系に作用することで筋弛緩をもたらす。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インダゾール(Indazole、別名:ベンズピラゾール、イソインダゾン)は2員環複素環式芳香族有機化合物の一つである。 インダゾール誘導体は様々な生物学的活性を有している。 インダゾール骨格は天然成分にはほとんど見られない。アルカロイドの一種(ニゲリシン(Nigericin)とは別)、ニゲグラニン(Nigeglanine)、(Nigellidine)に見られる。ニゲリシンはブラッククミン、ニオイクロタネソウ等と呼ばれる植物(学名:Nigella sativa L.)から単離された。ニゲグラニンは学名: freynと呼ばれる植物の抽出液から得られた。 で2H-インダゾールを合成できる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ブタン (butane, 英語発音: [ˈbjuːteɪn] ビューテイン) は、炭化水素の一種で、炭素4個が直鎖状に連なったアルカンである。n-ブタンとも呼ばれる。無色不快臭であり、常温・常圧で気体である。構造異性体としてイソブタン(2-メチルプロパン、iso-ブタン)があり、これらは異性体を持つアルカンでは最も小さい。可燃性物質であり、圧縮して液化した状態で運搬、利用される。天然には、石油や天然ガスの中に存在する。 1849年にエドワード・フランクランドによって発見された。名前の由来は酪酸の"but"にギリシア語における数字の末尾"ane"をつけたもの。 n-ブタンの爆発限界は 1.9~8.5vol%(空気中)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ミリスチン酸(ミリスチンさん、myristic acid)は、動物性・植物性脂肪中に広く見られる飽和脂肪酸である。ヤシ油、パーム油に多い。を持ち、それぞれ 53.8 °Cと約 58 °C である。IUPAC系統名はテトラデカン酸(tetradecanoic acid)。 ミリスチン酸のナトリウム塩であるミリスチン酸ナトリウムは石鹸の中で特に起泡性がよく、改質剤として石鹸やシャンプーに添加される。また乳化剤としてローションなどにも用いられる。 亜鉛塩のミリスチン酸亜鉛は化粧品の潤滑剤、増粘剤、安定剤として口紅、アイシャドウ、ファンデーションなどに用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    N,N-ジメチルホルムアミド (N,N-dimethylformamide, 略称DMF)は、有機化合物の一種。常温では無色で微かにアミン臭(純粋な場合は無臭)の液体。石油系炭化水素とは混合しないが、それ以外のほとんどの有機溶媒や水と任意の割合で混合する。 引火性液体であり、日本では消防法により危険物第4類(第2石油類)に指定されている。作業環境の管理濃度は、10ppmである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    1,4-ジオキサン (1,4-dioxane) は、常圧常温において無色透明の液体の有機化合物である。分子式は C4H8O2 である。ジエチルエーテルの臭気を弱くしたような臭気を持ち、非プロトン性溶媒としてよく用いられる。構造異性体に1,2-ジオキサンと1,3-ジオキサンがある。 1,4-ジオキサンはエーテル類に分類され、2つの酸素原子の両方がエーテル基を形成している。4つの炭素原子と1つの酸素原子を有するジエチルエーテルより極性が高い。このためジエチルエーテルは水に溶けにくい一方、1,4-ジオキサンは水と混合しやすく、吸湿性もある。有機溶媒としてしばしば用いられる他、塩素系溶剤の安定化剤としても用いられることがある。しかしグリニャール反応では、シュレンク平衡を不活性側に偏らせてしまうため、ほとんど用いられない。また重水を用いたNMRでは、化学シフトの内部基準物質としても用いられる。 なおダイオキシン (dioxin) も2つのエーテル基を有するが、ジオキサン (dioxane) とは全く特性の異なる化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アデニロコハク酸リアーゼ(adenylosuccinate lyase, ADSL)はプリン代謝のうちイノシン酸およびアデニル酸の合成に関わる酵素で、以下の2つの化学反応を触媒する。 1. * フマル酸 + AMP 2. * フマル酸 +

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ザラゴジン酸(ザラゴジンさん、Zaragozic acid)類は、真菌によって生産される天然物の一群である。最初に特徴付けられたザラゴジン酸A、B、およびCは未同定の培養物、 intermedia、およびからそれぞれ単離された。化合物名は菌がスペイン、サラゴサ(Zaragoza)のハロン川から取られた水試料に由来することによる。ザラゴジン酸類は独特の4,8-ジオキサビシクロ[3.2.1]オクタン母核を有し、1-アルキル側鎖と6アシル側鎖に違いがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キヌレニナーゼ(英: KYNU)は、トリプトファンを代謝する経路の一つであるキヌレニン経路で働く加水分解酵素。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    PTEN(ピーテン、Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted from Chromosome 10)とはイノシトールリン脂質であるホスファチジルイノシトール-3,4,5-三リン酸(PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)の脱リン酸化反応を触媒する酵素である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アデニン (adenine) は核酸を構成する5種類の主な塩基のうちのひとつで、生体内に広く分布する有機化合物である。 プリン骨格は糖ともアミノ酸とも異なる独特の形状をしているにもかかわらず、アデニン、グアニンの他、コーヒーや茶に含まれるカフェイン、ココアに含まれるテオブロミン、緑茶に含まれるテオフィリンなどを構成し、また最近ではプリン体をカットしたビールなども販売されるほどありふれた有機物である。アデニンはシアン化水素とアンモニアを混合して加熱するだけで合成されるため、原始の地球でもありふれた有機物であったと考えられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    プラスミン(plasmin, EC 3.4.21.7)は線溶系に属するタンパク質分解酵素(プロテアーゼ)の一種。セリンプロテアーゼ、エンドペプチダーゼに分類される。 反応はフィブリンやフィブリノーゲンを分解して血栓を分解するというものである。 プラスミンは通常、前駆体であるプラスミノーゲンの形で血漿に含まれており、プラスミノーゲンアクチベーター(ウロキナーゼ、組織プラスミノーゲンアクチベータ、ストレプトキナーゼ)によって活性化される。活性化はプラスミノーゲンのArg-Val間のペプチド結合の分解によって起きる。ただし、凝固系が働いているときはプラスミノーゲンアクチベータインヒビターによってプラスミノーゲンアクチベータが不活化している。プラスミンはプラスミンインヒビターと呼ばれるタンパク質によって阻害を受け、必要なときだけその作用を発揮するようになっている。 ヒトプラスミノーゲンの遺伝子はのq26–27に存在する。糖タンパクで、分子量は700kD程度。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    CDKN1B (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) は、サイクリン依存キナーゼ阻害タンパク質1Bであり、p27とも言い、ヒトのCDKN1B遺伝子にコード化されているタンパク質である。CDKN1Bは、サイクリン依存キナーゼ(CDK)阻害タンパク質のCip/Kipファミリーに属するタンパク質をコード化している。このコード化されたタンパク質は、サイクリンE-CDK2またはサイクリンD-CDK4複合体に結び付き、それらの活動を妨げ、それゆえ、G1において細胞周期の進行を調整している。CDKN1Bは細胞分裂の周期を停止またはスローダウンさせる大きな役割があるため、CDKN1Bは細胞周期の阻害タンパク質と呼ばれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    デカン(Decane)はアルカン。75種の構造異性体が存在する。石油やそれを分留した灯油に含まれる。可燃性、揮発性があり、常温常圧で無色の液体。他のアルカンと同様、極性をもたない。 0.0238 N·m−1の表面張力を有する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ε-アミノカプロン酸(イプシロンあみのかぷろんさん)は人工合成されたアミノ酸で、止血剤として用いられる。岡本歌子により開発された。 経口、静注のほか、点眼でも用いられうる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    トロンビン(Thrombin、第IIa因子とも)は、血液の凝固に関わる酵素(セリンプロテアーゼ)の一種。EC番号はEC 3.4.21.5であり、フィブリノーゲンをフィブリンにする反応を触媒する。ヒトの場合、11番染色体のp11-q12に存在するF2遺伝子にコードされる。 トロンビンは血液中に存在するプロトロンビン(第II因子)が第V因子によって活性化されることによって生まれる。第V因子、第VIII因子及び第IX因子を活性化させるのでの中核的な存在であり、血液凝固を阻止する際にはこの酵素の働きを止めることが重要である。 また血小板を活性化することでを促進する機能もある。この場合には血小板表面の受容体(Gタンパク質共役型受容体)を介して働く。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ビトロネクチン(英:vitronectin)は、血液や細胞外マトリックスに存在する糖タンパク質で、細胞接着・細胞進展を促す細胞接着分子である。組織形成維持、血液凝固線溶系、免疫補体系、組織修復、癌転移、神経細胞の分化や突起伸長で重要なはたらきをする。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スボレキサント(英:Suvorexant)は、選択的デュアルオレキシン受容体拮抗薬で、不眠症に対する効能・効果を有する睡眠薬。商品名ベルソムラとして販売され、開発はメルク・アンド・カンパニー(MSD)。開発名MK-4305で、3つの第III相臨床試験を完了し、アメリカ合衆国で2014年8月13日にアメリカ食品医薬品局(FDA)によって販売が承認され、日本では2014年9月26日に承認された。 アメリカ合衆国の規制物質法におけるスケジュールIVに指定されている。日本では習慣性医薬品に指定される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    オロチジン5'-一リン酸(オロチジン5'-いちリンさん、英: Orotidine 5'-monophosphate)は、オロチジル酸とも呼ばれており、ウリジン一リン酸の生合成の最終中間体であるピリミジンヌクレオチドである。 ヒトにおいてはウリジン一リン酸合成酵素がオロチジン5'-一リン酸をウリジン一リン酸に変換する。もしウリジン一リン酸の合成に障害が起こるとオロト酸尿症が発症する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    メチルアミン (methylamine) は、最も基本的な第一級アミン。メタンアミン、アミノメタンとも呼ばれる。 強い臭気を有する無色の気体で、20 ℃ で 108 g/100 mL と、水に非常に溶けやすい。引火性が強く、空気との混合気体は爆発しやすい。通常、塩酸との塩である塩酸メチルアンモニウムの状態で市販されることが多く、メーカーによっては、ガスボンベ、水溶液、メタノール溶液として販売する場合もある。 様々な有機化合物の原料となる物質である。多くのアミンと同じく N 上に孤立電子対を持つため塩基性を示し、求核剤としてハロゲン化アルキルやカルボン酸誘導体等と反応し、置換アミン、アンモニウム塩あるいは酸アミドを生成する。 日本では毒物及び劇物取締法によって劇物に指定されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コレステロールモノオキシゲナーゼ (側鎖開裂)(cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving))は、ステロイドホルモン生合成酵素の一つで、次の化学反応を触媒する酸化還元酵素である。 コレステロール + 還元型アドレナルフェレドキシン + O2 プレグネノロン + 4-メチルペンタナール + 酸化型アドレナルフェレドキシン + H2O この酵素の基質はコレステロール、還元型、O2で、生成物はプレグネノロン、、酸化型アドレナルフェレドキシンとH2Oである。補因子としてヘムを用いる。 組織名はcholesterol,reduced-adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (side-chain-cleaving)で、別名にcholesterol desmolase、cytochrome P-450scc、desmolase, steroid 20-22、C27-side chain cleavage enzyme、cholesterol 20-22-desmolase、cholesterol C20-22 desmolase、cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme、cholesterol side-chain-cleaving enzyme、enzymes, cholesterol side-chain-cleaving、steroid 20-22 desmolase、steroid 20-22-lyaseがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アスタキサンチン (astaxanthin, astaxanthine [æstəˈzænθɪn] アスタザンスィン) は、1938年にリヒャルト・クーンらにより発見された色素物質である。β-カロテンやリコピンなどと同じくカロテノイドの一種で、キサントフィル類に分類される。ザリガニにより構成される属のアスタクス属より名付けられた。IUPAC名は 3,3'-ジヒドロキシ-β,β-カロテン-4,4'-ジオン。尚、キサントフィルの由来はギリシャ語の "yellow flowers" であるが、アスタキサンチンの色は赤色である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    キスカル酸(キスカルさん、quisqualic acid)は、AMPA型グルタミン酸受容体及びのアゴニストである。興奮毒性を示し、神経科学では脳や脊髄の神経細胞を選択的に破壊するために用いられる。東北大学の竹本常松らにより駆虫薬として用いられる熱帯アジア原産の(Combretum indicum)の種子から発見され、シクンシの当時の学名(Quisqualis indica)にちなみ命名された。 アメリカ合衆国農務省のによる研究では、ゼラニウムの花弁にも存在することが示され、またマメコガネの麻痺の原因になっていることが明らかとなった。キスカル酸は、昆虫のやほ乳類の中枢神経系で神経伝達物質として働くL-グルタミン酸を模倣していると考えられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    FOXO3(forkhead box O3)またはFOXO3aは、ヒトではFOXO3遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ベキサロテン(Bexarotene)は(CTCL)の治療に用いられる化学療法剤の一つである。第三世代のレチノイドに分類される。商品名タルグレチン。アメリカのFDAに1999年に、欧州医薬品庁(EMA)に2001年に、日本のPMDAに2016年に承認された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    レボドパまたはL-ドパ(正式名称:L-3,4-ジヒドロキシフェニルアラニン、英語: L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)は、動物、植物の体内で生成される化学物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カルシフェジオール(Calcifediol)は、カルシジオール(calcidiol)、25-ヒドロキシコレカルシフェロール(25-hydroxycholecalciferol)、25-ヒドロキシビタミンD(25-hydroxyvitamin D、略称25(OH)D)とも呼ばれており、肝臓でビタミンDをヒドロキシ化して作られるホルモン前駆物質である。カルシフェジオールは、副甲状腺ホルモンに加えて低カルシウム、低リン酸状態により活性化したカルシジオール-1-モノオキシゲナーゼ(1α-ヒドロキシ酵素、25(OH)D-1α-ヒドロキシラーゼ)によりビタミンDの活性型であるセコステロイドホルモンであるカルシトリオール(Calcitriol、(1,25-(OH)2D3))に変換される。カルシジオールは、腎臓で炭素番号24の位置にヒドロキシ化されて24-ヒドロキシカルシジオールにも変換される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ユグロン(juglone、ジュグロン)または5-ヒドロキシ-1,4-ナフタレンジオン(5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione)、5-ヒドロキシナフトキノン(5-hydroxynaphthoquinone)は、化学式がC10H6O3の有機化合物の1つである。食品産業では、C.I. Natural Brown 7、C.I. 75500とも呼ばれる。この他にもヌシン(nucin)、レジアニン(regianin)、NCI 2323、Oil Red BSという呼称が有る。 ユグロンは、クルミ科植物、特に (Juglans nigra) の葉、根、殻および樹皮で生成し、多くの植物に対して、毒性または成長阻害作用を及ぼす。ユグロンは、除草剤、染料、インク、食品および化粧品のカラーリング剤として使われる場合がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    酢酸フェニル(さくさんフェニル)とは有機化合物の一種で、酢酸とフェノールが脱水縮合した構造を持つエステルのこと。塩化アセチルとフェノールを反応させて得る。フェノール臭を示す無色の液体。消防法による第4類危険物 第3石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジアミノピメリン酸(Diaminopimelic acid)は、リシンのε-カルボキシ誘導体であるアミノ酸である。 ジアミノピメリン酸は、ある種の細菌の特定の細胞壁に特徴的なものである。グラム陰性細菌の細胞壁を構成するNAM-NAG鎖のペプチド結合で良く見られる。これが十分に存在すると通常の成長を示すが、欠乏すると成長はするものの、細胞壁の新しいプロテオグリカンを形成できなくなる。 また、の付着点でもある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    安息香酸(あんそくこうさん、英: benzoic acid、独: Benzoesäure)は芳香族化合物であり、特に芳香族カルボン酸である。ベンゼンの水素原子1個がカルボキシ基に置換された構造を持つ。水に溶かすと酸性を示し、酸解離定数pKa は 4.21 である。 安息香酸のカルボキシ基に対してオルト位の水素原子がヒドロキシ基に置換されると、サリチル酸となる。 抗菌・静菌作用があるので、水溶性のナトリウム塩、安息香酸ナトリウム などは清涼飲料等の保存料として添加されている。の一種。殺菌作用はない(既に細菌などの増殖したものに対しては無効)。旧厚生省は安息香酸を天然に存在しない添加物に分類している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    硫化水素(りゅうかすいそ、英: hydrogen sulfide)は、化学式 H2S をもつ硫黄と水素の無機化合物で、カルコゲン化水素の一つ、スルファン。無色の気体で、腐卵臭を持つ。空気に対する比重は1.1905である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シアン化物(シアンかぶつ、英: cyanide)とは、シアン化物イオン (CN-) をアニオンとして持つ塩を指す呼称。シアン化合物(シアンかごうぶつ)、青酸化合物(せいさんかごうぶつ)、青酸塩(せいさんえん)、青化物(せいかぶつ)とも呼ばれる。代表例としてはシアン化ナトリウム (NaCN)、シアン化カリウム (KCN) など。 広義には、配位子としてシアン (CN-) を持つ錯体(例: フェリシアン化カリウム、K3[Fe(CN)6])、シアノ基が共有結合で結びついた無機化合物(例: シアノ水素化ホウ素ナトリウム、NaBH3CN)もシアン化物に含まれる。 それぞれの化合物の化学的性質は、シアン化物イオンやシアノ基が他の部分とどのように結びついているかにより大きく異なる。 有機化合物のうちニトリル類(例: アセトニトリル、別名: シアン化メチル、CH3CN)は「シアン化~」と呼ばれることがあるが、性質は大きく異なる。 シアン化合物は、一般に人体に有毒であり、ごく少量で死に至る。このことから、しばしば、シアン化合物による中毒死を目的として、毒殺や自殺に利用されてきた経緯がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    亜硝酸塩(あしょうさんえん、Nitrite)は、亜硝酸イオン NO2- をもつ塩である。英語の nitrite は、亜硝酸塩、亜硝酸イオン、亜硝酸エステルのいずれか指す。 亜硝酸イオンは錯体を形成する場合にアンビデントな配位子して働き、窒素原子で配位する場合はニトロ、酸素原子で配位する場合はニトリトと呼ばれる。 代表的な亜硝酸塩に亜硝酸ナトリウムや亜硝酸カリウムがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピリドキサール (pyridoxal) は、ビタミンB群の中のビタミンB6に分類される化合物の1つである。生体内ではピリドキサールキナーゼにより、補酵素形のピリドキサール-5'-リン酸に変換される。ピリドキサール-5'-リン酸が不要になると、脱リン酸化されてピリドキサールに戻され、さらにによって酸化されてに変換され、主に腎臓から尿中へと排泄される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アデノシン-3',5'-ビスリン酸(Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate)は、リボース環の異なる炭素に2つのリン酸が結合したアデノシンヌクレオチドである。リボースの5'炭素に二リン酸が結合したアデノシン二リン酸とは異なるヌクレオチドである。 アデノシン-3',5'-ビスリン酸は、補酵素の3'-ホスホアデノシン-5'-ホスホ硫酸からの硫酸基の供与によるの酵素反応生成物として生じる。この生成物は、3'(2'),5'-ビスリン酸ヌクレオチダーゼによって加水分解され、アデノシン一リン酸(AMP)を与える。生じたAMPはアデノシン三リン酸(ATP)にリサイクルされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ヘスペレチン(Hesperetin)は、フラバノンを骨格に持つO-メチル化フラボノイドの一種である。エリオジクチオールの4'位の水酸基(-OH)をメトキシ基(-OCH3)に置換した構造をもつ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ドルテグラビル(Dolutegravir、DTG)は、テビケイ(Tivicay)という商品名で販売されている、HIV/AIDSを治療する為に他剤と併用される抗レトロウイルス薬である。また、曝露後のHIV感染を予防するために、曝露後予防の一環として使用されることもある。投与方法は、経口投与である。 一般的な副作用には、睡眠障害、疲労感、下痢、高血糖、頭痛などがある。重大な副作用としては、アレルギー反応や肝機能障害などがある。妊娠中の使用は、胎児に害を及ぼす可能性があるという暫定的な懸念がある。また、授乳中の使用が安全かどうかは不明である。ドルテグラビルは、であり、ウイルスの複製に必要なHIVインテグラーゼの機能を阻害する。 ドルテグラビルは、2013年に米国で医療用医薬品として承認された。世界保健機関(WHO)の必須医薬品リストに掲載されている。また、アバカビルとラミブジンとの併用療法であるもある。2019年現在、世界保健機関(WHO)は、すべてのHIV感染者の第一選択薬および第二選択薬としてDTGを推奨している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    VHLタンパク質またはvon Hippel-Lindau腫瘍抑制因子(von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor)は、ヒトではVHL遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質である。VHL遺伝子の変異は、フォン・ヒッペル・リンドウ病(VHL病)と関係している。疾患名などと区別するため、pVHLと書かれることもある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フィナステリド(Finasteride)は、アメリカメルク社が開発した抗アンドロゲン薬。2型5-α還元酵素を阻害して、男性ホルモンテストステロンがDHT(ジヒドロテストステロン)に転換されるのを抑制する。高用量(5mg/day)で前立腺肥大症・前立腺癌に対して抑制的に作用する。Proscar等の商品名で海外で販売されているが、日本では前立腺の治療薬としては未承認。 低用量(0.2mgまたは1mg/day)で、男性型脱毛症(AGA)に対して脱毛抑制効果を認め、プロペシア(Propecia)の商品名で多くの国で発売されている。プロペシアの日本での特許は2015年に切れており、各社から後発品が発売されている。2020年時点で、日本でフィナステリドを製造・販売している製薬会社は計10社存在する。フィナステリドは本来クリニックでしか入手できない治療薬であり、個人輸入や輸入代行の利用は推奨されない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フッ化ベリリウム(beryllium fluoride)は、組成式がBeF2の無機化合物である。白色の固体で、主に金属ベリリウムの製造に用いられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ホルムアルデヒド (formaldehyde) は有機化合物の一種で、最も簡単なアルデヒド。酸化メチレンとも。IUPAC命名法で メタナール (methanal) と表される。本物質の水溶液はホルマリン。フェノール樹脂、メラミン樹脂、尿素樹脂などの原料としても広く用いられる。毒性が強く、建築基準法に制限値があるなど、規制対象でもある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    セレコキシブ(Celecoxib, 日本における製品名:セレコックス)は、非ステロイド性消炎・鎮痛薬(英語: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory Drugs:NSAIDs)であり、100mgと200mgの錠剤がある。セレコキシブは、COX-2を選択的に阻害することを目的にドラッグデザインされ、日本でCOX-2選択的阻害剤としてカテゴライズされている唯一の薬剤である。 商品名のセレコックスは、日本ではアステラス製薬が製造販売、ファイザーが販売提携を行っている。2020年6月に後発医薬品の発売が開始された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フィラグリン(Filaggrin)とは、表皮ので産生される塩基性タンパク質の1種である。フィラグリンのことを指して、ヒスチジン・リッチ・プロテインなどと呼ぶ場合もある。ヒトにおいて皮膚のバリア機能に欠かすことのできない角質層を形成するに当たり、フィラグリンはケラチンと共に重要な役割を担っている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    p53遺伝子(ピー53いでんし)とは、一つ一つの細胞内でDNA修復や細胞増殖停止、アポトーシスなどの細胞増殖サイクルの抑制を制御する機能を持ち、細胞ががん化したときアポトーシスを起こさせるとされる。この遺伝子による機能が不全となるとがんが起こると考えられている、いわゆる癌抑制遺伝子の一つ。 p53のpはタンパク質(protein)、53は分子量53,000を意味し、その遺伝子産物であるp53タンパク質(以下単にp53)は393個のアミノ酸から構成されている。この遺伝子は進化的に保存されており、昆虫や軟体動物にも存在している。ただしそれらのアミノ酸一次配列はかなり多様化している。またパラログとしてp63やp73もある。RB遺伝子とともによく知られている。 細胞が、がん化するためには複数の癌遺伝子と癌抑制遺伝子の変化が必要らしいことが分かっているが、p53遺伝子は悪性腫瘍(癌)において最も高頻度に異常が認められている。p53は、細胞の恒常性の維持やアポトーシス誘導といった重要な役割を持つことから「ゲノムの守護者 (The Guardian of the genome)」とも表現されるが、染色体構造が変化する機構と、それらの細胞内での働き、そしてそれらが生物にとってどのように大切なのかについてはよくわかっていない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピロカルピン(英:Pilocarpine)はアルカロイドの一種で、非選択的ムスカリン受容体刺激薬。ヒスチジン由来の化合物であり、アルカロイドとしては珍しいイミダゾール骨格を有する。有機溶媒への溶解性は高くない。医薬品としては塩酸ピロカルピンとして発売されている。 ムスカリン受容体を介して眼圧を低下させるため、点眼薬として緑内障の治療に用いられる。また、下記の作用から内服薬の形で口腔乾燥症の治療薬としても用いられている。 副交感神経末梢を興奮させるため、汗腺、唾液腺、涙腺の分泌を促進させ、瞳孔を縮小するなどの作用を起こす。この作用はアトロピンと拮抗することから、アトロピン中毒の治療にも用いられる(逆にピロカルピン中毒の場合はアトロピンが処方される)。 1875年、ブラジル原産のミカン科の植物ヤボランジ(Pilocarpus jaborandi)から発見・命名された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ペンタミジン(Pentamidine)はPneumocystis jirovecii (旧学名:Pneumocystis carinii )によるニューモシスチス肺炎(旧名:カリニ肺炎)(PCP)の治療薬である。PCPは重症間質性肺炎であり、HIV感染症の患者にしばしば見られる。ペンタミジンはステージIガンビアトリパノソーマ(西アフリカ睡眠病)の治療の主要薬剤でもある。商品名ベナンバックス。日本および米国で希少疾病用医薬品に指定されている。またWHO必須医薬品モデル・リストに収載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スベリン酸(スベリンさん、suberic acid)は、化学式C6H12(COOH)2のジカルボン酸の一つ。コルク酸、オクタン二酸とも呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ラルテグラビル(Raltegravir, RAL)は、商品名アイセントレス(Isentress)で販売されているHIV/AIDSの治療に用いられる抗レトロウイルス医薬品。 他の医薬品と併用され、また曝露後予防の一環として、曝露後の潜在的なHIV感染を予防するためにも使用される。投与法は経口である。 一般的な副作用には、睡眠障害、疲労感、吐き気、高血糖、頭痛などがあげられる。重度の副作用には、アレルギー反応によるスティーブンス・ジョンソン症候群、筋肉の破壊、肝臓の疾患などがあげられる。妊娠中または授乳中の患者への投与の安全性は不明確である。 ラルテグラビルは、に必要なHIVインテグラーゼの機能を阻害するである。 ラルテグラビルは、2007年に米国で医薬品として承認された。ラルテグラビルは世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに収載されており、医療制度に必要とされる最も安全で効果的な医薬品である。 としてラミブジンと組み合わされたもある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    PPARγ(ピーピーエイアールガンマ、Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ, NR1C3)とは核内受容体スーパーファミリーに属するタンパク質であり、転写因子としても機能する。「ペルオキシソーム増殖因子活性化受容体γ(ガンマ)」と和訳されることもある。PPARはα、β/δ、γの3種類のサブタイプが存在し、その中でもPPARγにはPPARγ1とγ2、γ3の少なくとも3種類のアイソフォームが存在することが知られている。選択的スプライシングの産物であるこれらのアイソフォームはそれぞれ発現や分子構造が異なる。PPARγは主に脂肪組織に分布して脂肪細胞分化などに関与するほか、マクロファージや血管内皮細胞などにも発現が見られる。インスリン抵抗性改善薬の標的分子でもある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    α-ケトイソカプロン酸(アルファ-ケトイソカプロンさん、α-ketoisocaproic acid)は、ロイシンの代謝中間体の一つである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カダベリン (cadaverine) は化学式 H2N(CH2)5NH2 で表される構造を持つジアミンである。アミノ酸・リシンが脱炭酸することによって生成する。名称は「死体のような」を意味する英語形容詞 "cadaverous" に由来する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    シキミ酸(シキミさん、shikimic acid)は環状ヒドロキシ酸。芳香族化合物が生合成される経路の重要な中間体。その名の通りシキミから発見されたが、ほとんどの植物でみられる。シキミ酸経路を構成する物質の一つ。がシキミ酸デヒドロゲナーゼ (EC1.1.1.25.) によって還元されて生成し、 (EC2.7.1.71) によってリン酸化され、になる。 最近では、インフルエンザの治療薬オセルタミビル(タミフル)の原料として用いられている。以前は、多段階の発酵法、多量の副生成物との分離といった課題があり、効率が悪かったが、コーヒー粕麹法により量産のめどがついた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    オロト酸(オロトさん、Orotic acid)は、乳清から発見された複素芳香環化合物。またはオロット酸・オロチン酸・ウラシル6-カルボン酸とも呼ばれる。アルコール発酵成就残物からネズミの成長促進因子としても発見されたのでビタミンB13とも呼ばれるが、人間を含む多くの高等動物は生合成できるので必須ビタミンではない。化学式はC5H4N2O4、分子量は156.10、融点345-346℃の白色の固体。CAS登録番号は[65-86-1]。 有機化学的にはオキサロ酢酸モノエステルと尿素をメタノール中で縮合して合成される。 生化学的にはピリミジン塩基の生合成中間体で、ジヒドロオロト酸からジヒドロオロト酸デヒドロゲナーゼによって誘導され、によってオロチジン一リン酸となる。ピリミジンの代謝に問題があると尿中に排出され、オロト酸尿症となる。これは知的障害を伴う遺伝病である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エストリオール(英: Estriol, E3)は、エストロゲンの一種。母体の肝臓と胎盤、胎児の副腎を経て生成されるため、その血中濃度は胎児の生命状態の指標として用いられる。最終的には肝臓で薬物代謝酵素によって不活性化され、肝臓や小腸でその大半は硫酸抱合体やグルクロン酸となり、大部分は尿中に排出される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インターロイキン-6(英: Interleukin-6, 略称: IL-6)はT細胞やマクロファージ等の細胞により産生されるレクチンであり、液性免疫を制御するサイトカインの一つである。IL-6は1986年に相補的DNA(cDNA)がクローニングされ、以降IL-6は種々の生理現象や炎症・免疫疾患の発症メカニズムに関与していることが明らかになった。IL-6受容体は分子量130kDaの糖タンパク質である(CD130)と会合して細胞内にシグナルを伝える。gp130はIL-6受容体以外にも受容体をはじめ、白血球遊走阻止因子(英:Leukemia Inhibitory Factor、LIF)、M(OSM)、(英:Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor、CNTF)等に対する受容体とも会合し、これらの分子はIL-6ファミリーと呼ばれる。近年ではIL-27及びIL-31もIL-6ファミリーに属すると考えられている。また、IL-6は脂肪細胞から分泌され、脂質代謝に関与するアディポカイン(英:Adipokine)と呼ばれるグループに属する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アミリン(英: amylin)または膵島アミロイドポリペプチド(英: islet amyloid polypeptide、略称: IAPP)は、37残基からなるペプチドホルモンである。アミリンは膵臓のβ細胞からインスリンとともに分泌される(インスリン:アミリン比は約100:1)。アミリンは胃の内容物排出速度を低下させて満腹感を促進することで血糖値の調節に関与し、食後の血糖値スパイクを防ぐ。 IAPPは89残基のコーディング配列からプロセシングされる。IAPP前駆体(proIAPP、proamylin、proislet protein)は膵臓のβ細胞で67アミノ酸、7404 Daの前駆体ペプチドとして産生され、プロテアーゼによる切断などの翻訳後修飾を受けることでアミリンが産生される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    デヒドロアラニン(Dehydroalanine)は、デヒドロアミノ酸の1つである。遊離型では存在せず、天然では微生物のペプチド内の残基として生じる。非飽和の骨格を持つ点で、アミノ酸残基としては特殊である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    オキソリン酸またはオキソリニック酸(英: oxolinic acid)とはキノロンの1種。キノロン系抗生物質の1つとして獣医学領域で利用され、農薬(細菌病用殺菌剤)としても用いられる。抗生物質としては12-20mg/kg、5-10日の経口投与を行う。DNAジャイレースを阻害することにより抗生物質として作用する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    RAF1はヒトではRAF1遺伝子にコードされる酵素である。c-Raf(proto-oncogene c-RAF)という名称が用いられることもあり、他にもRAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase、Raf-1などとも呼ばれる。c-Rafは(ERK1/2経路)を構成し、Rasサブファミリーの下流のMAPキナーゼキナーゼキナーゼ(MAP3K)として機能する。c-Rafはセリン/スレオニンキナーゼのRafキナーゼファミリーのメンバーであり、TKL(Tyrosine-kinase-like)グループに属する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    二酸化硫黄(にさんかいおう、英: sulfur dioxide)は、化学式SO2の無機化合物である。常温では刺激臭を有する気体。気体は別名亜硫酸ガス。化石燃料の燃焼などで大量に排出される硫黄酸化物の一種であり、きちんとした処理を行わない排出ガスは大気汚染や環境問題の一因となる。 二酸化硫黄は火山活動や工業活動により産出される。石炭や石油は多量の硫黄化合物を含んでおり、この硫黄化合物が燃焼することで発生する。火山活動でも発生する。二酸化硫黄は二酸化窒素などの存在下で酸化され硫酸となり、酸性雨の原因となる。空気よりも重い。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チオレドキシン(thioredoxin)は、全ての生物に存在する低分子量の酸化還元タンパク質である。様々な生命反応において重要な役割を担っている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    2-メトキシエタノールまたはメチルセロソルブは、化学式 C3H8O2 で表される有機化合物で、主に溶剤として用いられる。無色透明の液体でエーテル様の匂いがある。グリコールエーテルとして知られている溶媒に属する。異なるタイプの化学薬品を溶かすことができて、水や他の溶媒と混ざることは注目に値する。2-メトキシエタノールは、プロトン化したエチレンオキシドへのメタノールの求核攻撃と、それに続くプロトン脱離により形成される。 C2H5O+ + CH3OH → C3H8O2 + H+ 2-メトキシエタノールは、異なる目的、例えばワニス、染料、樹脂の溶剤として用いられる。また、航空機の除氷剤の添加剤としても用いられる。有機金属化学の分野では、バスカ錯体や関連した化合物、例えば、カルボニルクロロヒドリドトリス(トリフェニルホスフィン)ルテニウム(II) [cabonylchlorohydoridotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II)]の合成に普通に用いられる。これらの反応の間、アルコール (=2-メトキシエタノール) は水素化物と一酸化炭素の供給源として働く。 2-メトキシエタノールは、骨髄と睾丸に対して毒性がある。高レベルに曝露された労働者には、顆粒球減少症、(英語: macrocytic anemia)、乏精子症、無精子症 (azoospermia) のリスクがある。 メトキシエタノールはアルコールデヒドロゲナーゼによってに変換される。これは有害な影響を引き起こす物質である。 エタノールと酢酸エステルの両方に保護効果がある。 メトキシ酢酸エステルはクレブス回路に入り、メトキシクエン酸エステルを形成する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ピルビン酸カルボキシラーゼ(Pyruvate carboxylase)は、ピルビン酸を不可逆的にカルボキシル化してオキサロ酢酸にするリガーゼ群の酵素である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エタノールアミンリン酸(英: ethanolamine phosphate、EAP、O-リン酸エタノールアミン、英: O-phosphoethanolamine)またはリン酸エタノールアミン(英: phosphoethanolamine)、PEAは、広く生物界で見られる天然の化合物である。スフィンゴシン-1-リン酸リアーゼにより、脂質メディエーターのひとつであるスフィンゴシン-1-リン酸からエタノールアミンリン酸とtrans-2-ヘキサデセナールを生じる。同様の経路により、からも生成される。また、エタノールアミンキナーゼにより、エタノールアミンとATPからエタノールアミンリン酸とADPを生じる。エタノールアミンリン酸は、内因性カンナビノイド前駆体であるリン酸アナンダミドの一部でもある。 大うつ病患者では脳脊髄液中のエタノールアミン濃度が低下しているとの報告がある。ヒトの血漿中濃度は約2~5 μMである。大うつ病において血漿中エタノールアミン濃度が低下しているとの報告がある。 アメリカでは、カルシウム塩の形でサプリメントとして販売され、効能として細胞膜の強化が謳われている。 pKa値は5.61および10.39。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エキセメスタンは、第3世代アロマターゼ阻害薬のひとつ。乳癌の治療に用いられる。製品名はアロマシン錠(ファイザー製造販売)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジピコリン酸(ジピコリンさん、dipicolinic acid)は、細菌の芽胞の乾燥重量の5~15%を占める有機化合物である。芽胞が持つ耐熱性に関係した物質と考えられている 。 しかしながら、ジピコリン酸が欠乏しているが耐熱性をもつ変異種が分離されており、他の耐熱機構が存在することが示唆されている。 好気性バシラス属と嫌気性クロストリジウム属の2つの細菌の属が芽胞を作ることが知られている。 ジピコリン酸は、納豆に含まれ、抗菌作用を有し、溶連菌、ビブリオ、O-157などへの強い抗菌効果が認められている。納豆湿質量100gに対し20mg前後のジピコリン酸が含まれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    5‐メチルウリジン〈5-methyluridine〉リボシルチミン (ribosylthymine) ないしはリボチミジン(ribothymidine)はメチル化ヌクレオシドの一種である。5‐メチルウリジンのデオキシリボース体がチミジンである。生体では核酸の微量成分で、tRNAに存在する。 核酸命名法の略号"T"はリボシルチミンを意味し、チミジン(dT)を意味しない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ペラルゴン酸(ペラルゴンさん、pelargonic acid)は、9個の炭素鎖の末端にカルボキシル基を持つ飽和脂肪酸である。 「使い古した食用油に似た不快なにおい」を持つ油状の液体で、水にはほとんど溶けないが、クロロホルムやエーテル、アルコール、酢酸エチルにはよく溶ける。消防法に定める第4類危険物 第3石油類に該当する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アキシチニブ(Axitinib)は小分子の一つである。商品名インライタ。ヒト乳癌細胞移植モデルで細胞増殖を有意に抑制した。また腎細胞癌(RCC)での臨床試験や他の癌種で部分奏効した。無増悪生存期間が若干延長したが致死的な副作用も発現した。開発コードAG013736。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アロマターゼ(Aromatase, EC 1.14.14.14)は、エストロゲンシンテターゼ(estrogen synthetase)またはエストロゲンシンターゼと(estrogen synthase)も呼ばれ、エストロゲンの生合成に関与する酵素である。シトクロムP450スーパーファミリーの一つCYP19A1は、ステロイドの産生に関する様々な反応を触媒するモノオキシゲナーゼである。特に、アロマターゼはアンドロゲンをしてエストロゲンに変換する反応に関与している。アロマターゼは、性腺(顆粒膜細胞)、脳、脂肪組織、胎盤、血管、皮膚、骨などの多くの体組織のほか、子宮内膜症や子宮筋腫、乳癌、および子宮体癌の病巣部に見られる。 アロマターゼは思春期に重要な役割を果たしている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フェネチルアルコール (phenethyl alcohol) とは、芳香族アルコールの一種。2-フェニルエタノールや2-フェニルエチルアルコール、β-フェニルエチルアルコールとも呼ばれる。水にはわずかに溶ける (2 mL/100 mL H2O) いっぽう、エタノールやエーテルとは混和する。天然にバラなどにも含まれ、酒にも含まれ、香料、保存料などに利用される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    クリプトクロム(Cryptochrome, Cry)は青色光受容体タンパク質である。 ギリシャ語で「隠れた色素」(κρυπτοσ χρομοσ) という意味であり、元来は植物にあると想定された青色光受容体を指した。現在では特定の一群のタンパク質の名称であり、植物にはもう一種の青色光受容体であるフォトトロピンも見つかっている。クリプトクロムは緑藻から高等植物までにあり、さらに動物などにもよく似たタンパク質があることが明らかになっている。 クリプトクロムはフラビンタンパク質で、植物では光に基づく花芽形成、伸長、概日リズムなどの調節に関与している。青色光は光屈性にも関わっているが、これはクリプトクロムでなくフォトトロピンによることがわかっている。植物にはこのほかに赤色・近赤外光受容体フィトクロムがある。多くの植物ではクリプトクロムには2種類あり、CRY1およびCRY2と呼ばれている。 クリプトクロムは、光をエネルギー源としてDNA修復を行う細菌の酵素であるフォトリアーゼに構造が似ており(酵素活性は失っている)、進化的にはこれに由来すると考えられている。色素団としてプテリンとフラビンの2つを含んでいる。プテリンが光子を吸収し、これにより電子が放出され、この電子はフラビンに吸収される。これによりクリプトクロム分子はリン酸化を受け、さらにシグナル伝達の引き金を引くものと考えられているが、詳細は不明である。 クリプトクロムは動物(脊椎動物、昆虫、サンゴなど)やシアノバクテリア(藍藻)にも見つかっているが、これらは植物のものとは別系統とされる(Zhu, etal.2005 CurrBiol)。 動物では概日リズムに働く2タイプのCryがある。ほ乳類のCryは光受容能力はなく、CLOCK/BMALの抑制に働く。キイロショウジョウバエのCRYは青い光を受容して概日リズムをリセットするが、抑制能力はない。ただし蝶, ミツバチ, ハマダラカなど他の昆虫ではほ乳類型とショウジョウバエ型の両方のCryを持っている。 発見 1880年代にチャールズ・ダーウィンが植物の青色光に対する反応を初めて記録したが、原因となる色素を特定する研究が始まったのは1980年代になってからである[6]。 1980年、研究者たちは植物シロイヌナズナのHY4遺伝子が植物の青色光感受性に必要であることを発見し、1993年にその遺伝子の塩基配列が決定されると、青色光によって活性化されるDNA修復タンパク質であるフォトリアーゼと高い配列相同性を示すことがわかった[7]。 1995年には、HY4遺伝子とその2つのヒトホモログの産物はフォトリアーゼ活性を示さず、代わりに概日光色素と推定される新しいクラスの青色光光受容体であることが明らかになった[8]。 1996年と1998年には、Cryホモログがそれぞれショウジョウバエとマウスで同定された[9][10]。 進化の歴史と構造 クリプトクロム (CRY1, CRY2) は、進化的に古く、高度に保存されたタンパク質であり、生命のあらゆる王国に存在するフラボタンパク質スーパーファミリーに属している[4]。 このスーパーファミリーのメンバーはすべて、N末端にフォトリアーゼホモロジー (PHR) ドメインを持つという特徴を持っている。PHRドメインは,フラビンアデニンジヌクレオチド(FAD)補因子や光捕集性発色団と結合できる[4]。クリプトクロムは,光によって活性化され,紫外線によって誘発されたDNA損傷の修復に関与する細菌の酵素であるフォトリアーゼに由来し,近縁の存在である。真核生物では、クリプトクロムはもはやこの元々の酵素活性を保持していない[11]。クリプトクロムの構造はフォトリアーゼと非常によく似た折り畳み方をしており、1分子のFADがタンパク質に非共有結合している[4]。ラマチャンドランプロット[12]によると、CRY1タンパク質の二次構造は主に右巻きのαヘリックスであり、立体的な重なりはほとんどない[13]。分子は直交する束のように配置されている[4]。 機能 光屈性 植物では,クリプトクロムは青色光に反応して,光源に向かって成長する光屈性を媒介する.この反応には、フォトトロピンという独自の光受容体が存在することが知られている。フィトクロームやフォトトロピンとは異なり、クリプトクロムはキナーゼではない。フラビンクロモフォアは、光によって還元されて細胞核に運ばれ、細胞核で膨圧に影響を与え、茎の伸長を引き起こす。具体的には、Cry2は、青色光による子葉や葉の伸長に関与している。トランスジェニック植物でCry2を過剰発現させると,青光刺激による子葉の膨張が増大し,数枚の原葉に花がつくよりも,多くの広葉樹の葉に花がつかなくなる[14]。シロイヌナズナのEarly Flowering 3(elf3)遺伝子とCry2遺伝子の二重機能喪失変異は,連続光下では開花を遅らせ,長日時・短日時には開花を早めることが示されており,シロイヌナズナのCRY2が連続光下での開花時期を早める役割を果たしている可能性が示唆されている[15]。 光形態形成 クリプトクロム受容体は、植物が光形態形成によって青色光に反応する原因となる。種子や苗の発育を制御し、植物体から花の咲く時期への切り替えを行う。シロイヌナズナでは、クリプトクロムが最適ではない青色光条件下での植物の成長を制御することが明らかになっている[16]。 光の取り込み ショウジョウバエやシロイヌナズナにおけるクリプトクロムの光受容と光伝達については、多くの研究がなされているにもかかわらず、まだ十分に理解されていない。クリプトクロムには、プテリン(5,10-メテニルテトラヒドロ葉酸(MTHF)の形)とフラビン(FADの形)という2つの発色団があることが知られている[17]。どちらも光を吸収する可能性があり、シロイヌナズナでは、プテリンは380 nm、フラビンは450 nmの波長で吸収するようである。過去の研究では、プテリンが捕らえたエネルギーがフラビンに伝達されるというモデルが支持されている[18]。この光伝達モデルでは、FADがFADHに還元され、クリプトクロムの特定のドメインのリン酸化を仲介すると考えられる。これがシグナル伝達の連鎖を引き起こし、細胞核での遺伝子制御に影響を与える可能性がある。 新しい仮説[19]では、植物のクリプトクロムでは、光信号をパートナー分子が感知できるような化学信号に変換する際に、FAD補因子や隣接するアスパラギン酸など、タンパク質内の光によって誘発される負電荷が引き金になるのではないかと提案している[20][21]。 この負電荷は、タンパク質に結合したATP分子を静電的に反発させ、その結果、光子吸収前にATP結合ポケットを覆っているタンパク質C末端ドメインも反発させる。その結果、タンパク質のコンフォメーションが変化し、C末端の以前はアクセスできなかったリン酸化部位がリン酸化され、リン酸化されたセグメントが光形態形成の負の制御因子COP1の同じ結合部位と競合することで、転写因子HY5を解放することができる。 ショウジョウバエでは,異なるメカニズムが機能している可能性がある。ショウジョウバエのCRYにおけるフラビン補酵素の真の基底状態については,いまだに議論されており,FADが酸化された形で存在するというモデルもあれば[22],フラビン補酵素がアニオンラジカルの形でAD−•として存在するというモデルを支持する人もいる.近年、酸化したFADが光によって容易にAD−•に還元されることが観察された。さらに,光還元を阻害する変異は,光によるCRYの劣化に影響を与えないが,FADの安定性を変化させる変異は,CRYの光受容体の機能を破壊することがわかった[23][24].また,最近では,FAD-が光子を吸収して2重状態または4重状態に励起され,それによってCRYタンパク質の構造が変化するというモデルも提案されている[25]. また,海綿体の眼には,青色光を受容するクリプトクロームが発現している.多くの動物の眼は、神経細胞に発現した光感受性のオプシンタンパク質を用いて光環境の情報を神経系に伝達しているが、海綿動物の幼生は色素環眼を用いて光泳ぎを行っている。しかし、海綿動物の幼生であるAmphimedon queenslandicaのゲノムには、他の多くのGタンパク質共役型受容体(GPCR)が存在するにもかかわらず、光感受性オプシン色素の遺伝子がないことが明らかになっている。RNAプローブを用いた研究により、2つのクリプトクロムのうちの1つ「Aq-Cry2」が、スポンジの単純な目の細胞の近くで生成されていることがわかった。Aq-Cry2はフォトリアーゼ活性を持たず、フラビンベースの補因子を含んでおり、幼生の光行動を媒介する波長の光に反応する。Aq-Cry2は、オプシンクラスのGPCRとして定義され、オプシン機能の中心となる保存されたShiff塩基リジンを有している。他の海綿動物と同様、A. queenslandicaは神経系を持たない。このことから、オプシンを持たないカイメンの眼は、クリプトクロムと他のタンパク質を利用して、眼を媒介とした光定位行動を指示または作用させていると考えられる[26]。 概日リズム 動物や植物の研究から、クリプトクロムが概日リズムの生成と維持に極めて重要な役割を果たしていることが示唆されている[27]。 同様に、植物の概日リズムの同調にもクリプトクロムが重要な役割を果たしている。 [28] ショウジョウバエでは、クリプトクローム(dCRY)は、概日時計への光の入力を直接調節する青色光の光受容体として働き[29] 、哺乳類では、クリプトクロム(CRY1およびCRY2)は、概日時計の中で転写抑制因子として働く。 [30] オオカバマダラを含むいくつかの昆虫は、哺乳類に似たクリプトクロムとショウジョウバエに似たクリプトクロムの両方を持っており、クリプトクロムの光感知と転写抑制の両方の役割を含む先祖代々の時計メカニズムの証拠となっている[31][32]。 Cry変異体は、概日リズムが変化しており、Cryが概日ペースメーカーに影響を与えていることを示している。また,Cry1またはCry2遺伝子を欠損したマウスでは,自由行動期間が異なるものの,光降伏が可能であった[34].しかし,Cry1とCry2の両方を欠損したマウスは,LDとDDの両方で不整脈を起こし,常にPer1のmRNAレベルが高い.これらの結果は,クリプトクロームが光受容的な役割を果たすとともに,マウスのPer遺伝子発現の負の調節因子として機能していることを示唆している[35]. ショウジョウバエの場合 ショウジョウバエでは、クリプトクロームは青色光の光受容体として機能している。青色光を照射すると,常に活性化しているCRYのC末端を欠いた変異体(CRYΔ)と同様のコンフォメーションが誘導される[25].このコンフォメーションの半減期は暗所では15分であり,光依存的にCRYと他の時計遺伝子産物であるPERやTIMとの結合を促進する[3][25][29][36]. dCRYと結合したdTIMは,ユビキチン-プロテアソーム系によって分解される. 光パルスが同調しないにもかかわらず,光周期のLDサイクルがショウジョウバエの脳の腹側ニューロンのサイクルを駆動することができる。これらのデータは、CRYがショウジョウバエの体内時計の細胞自律的な光受容体であり、ノンパラメトリックな同調(短い離散的な光パルスによる同調)の役割を果たしている可能性を示唆している。しかし、側方神経細胞は、青色光のCRY経路とロドプシン経路の両方で光情報を受け取っている。したがって,CRYは光の知覚に関与し,概日時計の入力となっているが,光情報の唯一の入力ではない。CRY経路がない場合でも持続的なリズムが示されており,この場合,ロドプシン経路が何らかの光の入力を提供していると考えられている[37]。 最近,古典的な概日性のCRY-TIM相互作用とは独立した,CRYを介した光反応があることも明らかになった。このメカニズムには,カリウムチャネルのコンダクタンスに依存したフラビンレドックスベースのメカニズムが必要であると考えられている.このCRYを介した光反応は,オプシンノックアウトしたショウジョウバエにおいて,光反応の数秒後に活動電位の発火を増加させることが示されている[38]. クリプトクロムは,概日リズムに関与する多くの遺伝子と同様に,mRNAおよびタンパク質レベルで概日的な循環を示す。ショウジョウバエでは,CryのmRNA濃度は明暗サイクル(LD)で循環しており,明所では高濃度,暗所では低濃度となる[33].この循環は暗所(DD)でも持続するが,振幅は減少する[33].Cry遺伝子の転写も同様の傾向で循環する[33].LDでは、CRYタンパク質は明所では低レベル、暗所では高レベルとなり、DDでは、CRYレベルは主観的な昼夜を通して連続的に増加する[33]。このように、CRYの発現は、転写レベルでは時計によって、翻訳および翻訳後のレベルでは光によって制御されている[33]。 また,Cryの過剰発現は,概日的な光反応にも影響を与える.ショウジョウバエでは,Cryを過剰に発現させると,ハエの低照度光に対する感度が向上する[33]。このようにCRYタンパク質レベルが光によって調節されることは,CRYが他の時計遺伝子や構成要素の上流で概日的な役割を果たしていることを示唆している[33]。 哺乳類 クリプトクロームは,Period(PER),CLOCK,BMAL1とともに,転写-翻訳-負帰還ループ(TTFL)を生成する4つのグループの哺乳類時計遺伝子/タンパク質の1つである[39]. [このループの中で,CLOCKとBMAL1タンパク質は転写活性化因子であり,共にCry遺伝子とPer遺伝子のプロモーターに結合してその転写を活性化する[39]。 そして,CRYとPERタンパク質は互いに結合して核に入り,CLOCK-BMAL1の活性化した転写を阻害する[39]。 マウスでは,Cry1の発現は,概日リズムの生成に関与する脳領域である視交叉上核において,明期にmRNAレベルがピークに達し,暗期には最小になるという概日リズムを示していた[40]. CRYは哺乳類におけるTIMのホモログとして確立されていますが、哺乳類における光受容体としてのCRYの役割については議論の余地があります。初期の論文では,CRYには光に依存しない機能と依存する機能の両方があることが指摘されていました.2000年の研究では,ロドプシンを持たないがクリプトクロムを持つマウスは光に反応するが,ロドプシンとクリプトクロムのどちらも持たないマウスでは,光感受性のメディエーターであるc-Fosの転写が著しく低下することが示された[41]. [近年、メラノプシンが主な概日光受容体であることを支持するデータが出てきており、特にメラノプシン細胞は眼と視交叉上核(SCN)の間の同調とコミュニケーションを媒介している[42]。 哺乳類の光受容体としてCRYを肯定するか否定するかの主な難点は、遺伝子をノックアウトすると動物が不整脈を起こすため、純粋に光受容体としての能力を測定することが難しいことである。しかし,いくつかの最近の研究は,ヒトCRYが末梢組織における光反応を媒介する可能性を示しています[43]. 正常な哺乳類の概日リズムは、Cry1プロモーターの活性化後のCry1の遅延発現に決定的に依存している。Per2プロモーターの活性化とPer2 mRNAレベルのリズムがほぼ同じ位相であるのに対し、Cry1 mRNAの生成はCry1プロモーターの活性化に比べて約4時間遅れる[44]。 [この遅延は、CRY1やCRY2のレベルとは無関係であり、プロモーターのE/E'ボックスおよびDボックス要素と、遺伝子の第1イントロンにあるRevErbA/ROR結合要素(RRE)の組み合わせによって媒介される[45]。 不整脈を起こしているCry1//-Cry2//-ダブルノックアウト細胞に、Cry1プロモーターのみをトランスフェクションしても(Cry1の構成的な発現を引き起こす)、リズムを回復するのに十分ではない。これらの細胞で概日リズムを回復させるには、プロモーターと第1イントロンの両方をトランスフェクションすることが必要である[45]。磁気受容 磁気受容 主な記事 磁気受容 磁気受容とは、生物が磁場を感知して方向や高度、位置を認識するための感覚である。鳥の目の視細胞に含まれるクリプトクロムが、移動中の磁気的な方向性に関与しているという実験データがある[46]。 また、ショウジョウバエの光による磁場感知能力にもクリプトクロムが必須であると考えられている[47]。磁場がシロイヌナズナのクリプトクロムにも影響を与えることが報告されたことがある。 青色光(赤色光ではない)の存在下で、成長行動が磁場の影響を受けているように見えた[48]。 しかし、この結果は後に別の研究室で厳密に管理された条件では再現できないことが判明し[49]、植物のクリプトクロムは磁場に反応しないことが示唆された。 クリプトクロムは、青色光を照射すると、スピンが相関したラジカル対を形成する[50][51]。ラジカル対は、光に依存しない暗所でのフラビン補酵素の分子酸素による酸化反応でも、スピンが相関したFADH-スーパーオキシドラジカル対を形成して生成される[52]。磁気受容は、周囲の磁場がこれらのラジカルの相関(平行または反平行)に影響を与えることで機能すると仮定されており、これが活性化された形のクリプトクロムの寿命に影響を与えると考えられている。クリプトクロムの活性化は、網膜ニューロンの感光性に影響を与え、その結果、動物は磁場を感知することができる[53]。 動物のクリプトクロームと近縁の動物(6-4)フォトリアーゼは、クリプトクロム・フォトリアーゼ・スーパーファミリーの他のタンパク質よりも、電子伝達を行うトリプトファンの鎖が長い(トリプトファンが3つではなく4つ)[54][55]。 [ナノ秒からマイクロ秒の時間スケールでこれらのラジカルペアのスピン選択的な再結合がないことは,クリプトクロームによる磁気受容が前方光反応に基づいているという提案とは相容れないように思われる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    テルル化水素(テルルかすいそ、hydrogen telluride)は、化学式が H2Te と表される、テルルと水素からなる無機化合物であり、カルコゲン化水素の一つ、IUPAC組織名はテラン (tellane)。テルルの形式酸化数は −2価で、もっとも単純なテルリドである。 酸素族元素(カルコゲン元素)の水素化物のひとつ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    HER2(ハーツー)は、細胞表面に存在する約185 kDaの糖タンパクで、受容体型チロシンキナーゼである。上皮成長因子受容体 (EGFR、別名ERBB1) に類似した構造をもち、EGFR2、ERBB2、CD340、あるいはNEUとも呼ばれる。HER2タンパクをコードする遺伝子は HER2/neu、erbB-2 で17番染色体長腕に存在する。また、HER2 は、human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR/ERBB) family(EGFRファミリー)に属するタンパク質である。 HER2タンパクは正常細胞において細胞の増殖、分化などの調節に関与しているが、何らかの理由でHER2遺伝子の増幅や遺伝子変異が起こると、細胞の増殖・分化の制御ができなくなり、細胞は悪性化する。HER2遺伝子はがん遺伝子でもあり、多くの種類のがんで遺伝子増幅がみられる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ナリジクス酸(ナリジクスさん、Nalidixic acid)とは、1962年に社により開発(化学合成)された抗菌剤の一種である。日本では第一製薬によりウイントマイロンという商品名で販売された(現在は第一三共製造販売ののちに販売中止」)。 社名(ウインスロップ社、Winthrop)由来の前半と、抗生物質と区別するために後半をマイシン(mycin)ではなくマイロン(mylon)として、ウイントマイロン(WINTO+MYLON)と命名された。 この化合物は最初に発見されたキノロン系抗菌剤であり、第一世代キノロンに分類されている。ナリジキシン酸(ナリジキシンさん)とも呼ばれる。主にグラム陰性菌に対して効果を発揮するが、のちにレボフロキサシンをはじめとする、グラム陽性菌にも効果を発揮するニューキノロンと呼ばれる抗菌薬群も開発された。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    デオキシリボース (deoxyribose) または2-デオキシ-D-リボースは、アルドース、ペントースおよびデオキシ糖の一つで、アルデヒド基を含む単糖である。1929年にフィーバス・レヴィーンによって発見された。 リボースの2位のヒドロキシル基が水素に置換され、元より酸素原子が1つ減少した構造をしている。デオキシリボ核酸 (DNA) の構成成分でもある。 五員環構造はデオキシリボフラノース (Deoxyribofuranose) と呼ばれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フルボキサミン(英:Fluvoxamine)は、選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬(SSRI)に分類される抗うつ薬のひとつで、ベルギーの化学会社ソルベイ(医薬品部門は現アッヴィ)によって創製された。 1999年5月に、日本で最初に発売されたSSRIである。日本ではルボックス(アッヴィ)、デプロメール(Meiji Seika ファルマ)の商品名で知られ、うつ病・うつ状態、強迫性障害、社交不安障害に適応がある。処方箋医薬品である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    D-プシコース(D-psicose、Psi、D-allulose、D-ribo-2-hexulose)は、六炭糖およびケトースに分類される単糖の一種。D-フルクトースの3位のエピマーである。名称はプシコースの初期の名称であるpseudo-fructoseの略記法であるΨ-fructoseから来ている。アルロースとも呼ばれる。 当量のスクロース(ショ糖)のわずか0.3%のカロリーしかエネルギーとして利用されないという特徴がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ウリジン二リン酸 N-アセチルグルコサミン(ウリジンにリンさん N-アセチルグルコサミン、Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine、略称: UDP-GlcNAc)は、糖ヌクレオチドの一つであり、代謝における補酵素の一つである。UDP-GlcNACは基質にN-アセチルグルコサミン残基を転移するためにによって使われる。D-グルコサミンは、の形で天然で作られ、全ての窒素含有糖の生化学的前駆体である。具体的に言うと、グルコサミン-6-リン酸は、ヘキソサミン生合成経路の第一段階としてフルクトース-6-リン酸およびグルタミンから合成される。この経路の最終産物がUDP-GlcNAcであり、グリコサミノグリカンやプロテオグリカン、糖脂質を作るために用いられる。 UDP-GlcNAcは、幅広い種においてO結合型N-アセチルグルコサミン転移酵素 (OGT) の基質として細胞内シグナル伝達に広範に関与している。また、核膜孔形成および核シグナル伝達にも関与している。OGTおよびOG分解酵素は、細胞骨格の構造において重要な役割を果たしている。ほ乳類では、膵臓のβ細胞においてOGT転写産物が多くあり、UDP-GlcNAcはグルコース感知機構の一部をなしていると考えられている。また、その他の細胞でインスリン抵抗性に関与していることも明らかにされている。植物では、ジベレリン生産の制御に関与している。 Clostridium novyiタイプAαトキシンは、O結合型N-アセチルグルコサミン転移酵素であり、Rhoタンパク質に作用し、細胞骨格の崩壊の原因となる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コプロポルフィリノーゲンI(Coproporphyrinogen I)とは、急性間欠性ポルフィリン症で体内に蓄積されるテトラピロールである。 ヒドロキシメチルビランがウロポルフィリノーゲンIIIシンターゼによって縮合し、環を巻く際、ウロポルフィリノーゲンIIIシンターゼの働きにより4つのピロール環が整然と並んだヒドロキシメチルビランの一端のピロール環一つだけが反転して縮合し環を形成する。ウロポルフィリノーゲンIIIシンターゼがはたらかない場合、ピロール環が整然と並んだままのヒドロキシメチルビランが自発的に縮環してウロポルフィリノーゲンI が生成する。ウロポルフィリノーゲンI はウロポルフィリノーゲン脱炭酸酵素の基質となりコプロポルフィリノーゲンIへと変換されるが、これはコプロポルフィリノーゲン酸化酵素の基質とならないため、プロトポルフィリンには至らない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    バリエノール(Valienol)またはストレプトール(Streptol)は、C-7シクリトールである。バリエナミンと似た構造を持つ。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    イノシン (inosine) は、ヌクレオシド構造を持つ有機化合物の一種である。ヒポキサンチン(6-ヒドロキシプリン)とD-リボースからなるN-リボシドで、その構造は ヒポキサンチンリボシドとも表される。Ino、Iと略記される。肉類などの中に存在する天然化合物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジヒドロリポイルデヒドロゲナーゼ(dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase)は、フラボタンパク質酵素の一つで、をに分解する酸化還元酵素である。 * *

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    インドール(Indole)は、分子式 C8H7N、分子量 117.15 で、ベンゼン環とピロール環が縮合した構造をとる有機化合物である。窒素原子の孤立電子対が芳香環の形成に関与しているためインドールは塩基ではない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ミドスタウリン (midosutaurin, PKC412) は、マルチターゲットプロテインキナーゼ阻害剤であり、急性骨髄性白血病 (AML) および骨髄異形成症候群 (MDS) の治療薬として研究されている。ミドスタウリンは、微生物Streptomyces staurosporeusに含まれるアルカロイドであるスタウロスポリンの半合成類縁体であり、 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor) に変異を有する患者に対して活性を示す。 第II相臨床試験の成功後、AMLに対する第III相試験が2008年に開始された。ここでは、ミドスタウリンとダウノルビシンおよびシタラビンとの複合療法が試されている。その他の治験では、悪性黒色腫に対して無効であることが確かめられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジステアロイルホスファチジルコリン(Distearoylphosphatidylcholine、DSPC)は、リン脂質の一種であるホスファチジルコリンである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    クェルセチン(またはクエルセチン、ケルセチン、英: quercetin)は、フラボノイドの一種でフラボノールを骨格に持つ物質。配糖体(ルチン、クエルシトリンなど)または遊離した形で柑橘類、タマネギやソバをはじめ多くの植物に含まれる。黄色い色素で、古くから染料としても用いられてきた。分子式は C15H10O7、分子量 302.24、CAS登録番号は [117-39-5]。 化合物名は1857年から使用されており、ラテン語で「オークの森」を意味するquercetum(ラテン語でオークはQuercus - コナラ属)に由来する。クェルセチンは天然に存在するオーキシン極性移動阻害剤である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アンドロステロン(androsterone)または5α-アンドロスタン-3α-オール-17-オン(5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one)は、内因性ステロイドホルモン、神経ステロイド、推定上のフェロモンである。の約7分の1のを持つ弱いアンドロゲン(雄ホルモン)である。アンドロステロンはテストステロンおよびジヒドロテストステロン(DHT)の代謝物である。加えて、および17β-ヒドロキシステロイドデヒドロゲナーゼによって、アンドロステンジオンやテストステロンといった従来型中間体を迂回してDHTへと元に戻る。そのようなものとして、アンドロステロンはそれ自体で代謝中間体を考えることができる。 アンドロステロンは、GABAA受容体の正のアロステリック調節因子として働くアンドロスタン神経ステロイドとしても知られており、また抗てんかん作用を有する。アンドロステロンの非天然型エナンチオマーはGABAA受容体の正のアロステリック調節因子や抗てんかん薬として天然型よりも高い効果を示す。アンドロステロンの3β-異性体は、5β-異性体は、3β,5β-異性体はである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    DAPI(ダピ、ダーピー、4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)は染色に用いられる蛍光色素の一種で、DNAに対して強力に結合する物質である。蛍光顕微鏡観察に広く利用されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ケラトルファン(Kelatorphan)は、ネプリライシン、、、アンジオテンシン変換酵素等、内在性エンケファリンの代謝に関わるほぼ全ての酵素を強力に阻害する。マウスにおいて50 μgのケラトルファンとともにを内投与すると(ケラトルファンは血液脳関門を通過できないため)、メチオニンエンケファリンの鎮痛効果はおよそ5万倍(ED50は約10 ng)になる。ケラトファンは単独でも強力な抗侵害受容効果を示し、呼吸を抑制することはなく、高濃度では実際に増加させる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    スラミン(Suramin)は、アフリカ睡眠病や糸状虫症の治療に用いられる薬剤である。アフリカ睡眠病の治療で中枢神経系に関与しない治療方針で選択される薬剤である。投与方法は点滴静脈注射である。 スラミンによる副作用は多数ある。主な副作用は、吐き気、嘔吐、下痢、頭痛、皮膚の刺激感、衰弱などである。さらに、掌と足の裏の痛み、視覚障害、発熱、腹痛が生じることがある。 重度の副作用には、低血圧、の低下、腎不全、などがあげられる。授乳中のヒトへの投与の安全性は不明確である。 スラミンか造られたのは早くて1916年である。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されており、最も効果的で安全な医療制度に必要とされる医薬品である。米国ではアメリカ疾病予防管理センター(CDC)から入手できる。一貫の治療にかかる薬剤費用は約27米ドルである。世界中でアフリカ睡眠病がよく診られる地域では世界保健機関から無料でスラミンが提供される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジアゼパム(英語: Diazepam)は、主に抗不安薬、抗痙攣薬、催眠鎮静薬として用いられる、ベンゾジアゼピン系の化合物である。筋弛緩作用もある。アルコールの離脱や、ベンゾジアゼピン離脱症候群の管理にも用いられる。ジアゼパムは、広く用いられる標準的なベンゾジアゼピン系の一つで、世界保健機関(WHO)による必須医薬品の一覧に加えられている。また広く乱用される薬物であり、1971年の国際条約である向精神薬に関する条約のスケジュールIVに指定されている。日本では処方箋医薬品の扱いであり、「ジアゼパム錠」という名称で処方されている。処方・入手は医師の処方箋に限られる。 ジアゼパムはてんかんや興奮の治療に用いられる。また、有痛性筋痙攣(いわゆる“こむらがえり”)などの筋痙攣の治療にはベンゾジアゼピン類の中で最も有用であるとされている。鎮静作用を生かし手術などの前投薬にも用いられる。アルコールやドラッグによる離脱症状の治療にも用いられる。 ジアゼパムによる有害事象としては、前向性健忘(特に高用量で)と鎮静、同時に、激昂やてんかん患者における発作の悪化といった奇異反応が挙げられる。またベンゾジアゼピン系はうつ病の原因となったり悪化させることがある。ジアゼパムも含め、ベンゾジアゼピンの長期的影響として耐性の形成、ベンゾジアゼピン依存症、減薬時のベンゾジアゼピン離脱症状がある。ベンゾジアゼピンの中止後の認知的な損失症状は、少なくとも6か月間持続する可能性があり、いくつかの損失症状の回復には、6か月以上必要な可能性があることが示されている。ジアゼパムには身体的依存の可能性があり、長期間にわたって使用すれば身体的依存による重篤な問題の原因となる。処方の慣行を改善するために各国政府に対して、緊急な行動が推奨されている。 化学的には、1,4-ベンゾジアゼピン誘導体で、1950年代にレオ・スターンバックによって合成された。1960年代に広く用いられることとなった。日本での代替医薬品でない商品には、武田薬品工業のセルシンやアステラス製薬のホリゾンがあり、他に各種の後発医薬品が利用可能である。アメリカ合衆国での商品名としてValium、Seduxenなどがある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カイロ-イノシトール は、イノシトールの10種あるアイソマーのうちの一つを構成する。のセカンドメッセンジャーとして機能する事が明らかにされ、神経組織の伝達と関連するミオイノシトールと並んで臨床的に特に重要な物質である。カイロ-イノシトールは、細胞膜のリン脂質、グリコシルホスファチジルイノシトールの構成イノシトールであり、インスリン代謝作用の伝達へ関与が報告されている。無月経や不妊の原因疾患である多嚢胞性卵巣症候群の疾患患者は、体内でのカイロ-イノシトール欠乏が認められるが、D-カイロ-イノシトールの経口補充によって、インスリン抵抗性及び無月経の著明な改善が報告されている。 において、D-カイロ-イノシトールを摂取した多嚢胞性卵巣症候群の女性は、対照群と比較して、遊離および総テストステロン値の低下、血圧、インスリン感受性の改善及び排卵の増加が報告されている。 カイロ-イノシトールは自然界に存在する天然の物質であるが、蕎麦を除く植物体からは殆ど検出されない。 そのため、食品中に含まれるイノシトールからエピメラーゼの作用を経て体内で生合成されている可能性がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    UDP-グルコース-ヘキソース-1-リン酸ウリジリルトランスフェラーゼ(UDP-glucose—hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase)は、摂取したガラクトースをグルコースへ転換する酵素である。ガラクトース-1-リン酸ウリジリルトランスフェラーゼ(galactose—1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, GALT)とも呼ばれる。 * ガラクトース * グルコース これは、ルロワール経路において重要な酵素で、UDP-グルコースとガラクトース-1-リン酸からUDP-ガラクトースとグルコース-1-リン酸を作り出す。また、この酵素の変異によってガラクトース血症が引き起こされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ジメチルグリシン(Dimethylglycine)は、構造式では(CH3)2NCH2COOHで表されるグリシンの誘導体である。マメや肝臓で見られる。トリメチルグリシンが1つのメチル基を失うことによって形成される。また、コリンの代謝の副産物でもある。 ジメチルグリシンが最初に発見された時にはビタミンB16と呼ばれたが、実際のビタミンB群とは異なり、食物からジメチルグリシンを得られなくても病気にはならない。これはヒトの体内でもクエン酸回路で合成されるためで、ビタミンの定義には当てはまらない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アデノシン(Adenosine)とは、アデニンとリボースからなるヌクレオシドである。アデニンとリボースは、β-N9-グリコシド結合している。地球生物の生体内に普遍的に見られる物質の1つである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    p-トルイル酸(パラ トルイルさん)は、芳香族化合物である。安息香酸の4位にメチル基が結合した構造で、4-メチル安息香酸とも呼ばれる。p-キシレンから、ポリエチレンテレフタラートの原料となるテレフタル酸を製造する際の反応中間体として生じる。白色の結晶で、水に溶けないがアセトンには溶ける。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グルコン酸(グルコンさん、gluconic acid)はグルコースの1位の炭素を酸化することによって生成するカルボン酸で、化学式C6H12O7で表される。光学活性化合物であり、天然にはD体が存在、そのIUPAC組織名は (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-ペンタヒドロキシヘキサン酸と表される。水に溶かすとグルコン酸イオンC6H11O7−となる。アルドン酸の一種。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    脳性ナトリウム利尿ペプチド(のうせいナトリウムりにょうペプチド, 英 brain natriuretic peptide; BNP)は心臓から分泌されるホルモンである。主として心室で合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    4-メチルイミダゾール(英: 4-Methylimidazole)は、化学式C4H6N2で表される複素環式化合物の一種で、4-MIとも略記される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    2,4-ジニトロフェノール(英: 2,4-Dinitrophenol、DNP)は有機化合物の一つ。黄色結晶性固体で、甘く黴臭い臭気を持つ。昇華性がある。ほとんどの有機溶媒や、アルカリ性の溶液に溶ける。酸化的リン酸化を脱共役化し、ATPの発生しないエネルギーの急速な消費を行う。自然界には存在しない人工の化合物である。 2,4-ジニトロクロロベンゼンの加水分解によって合成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チオグアニン(TioguanineまたはThioguanine)または6-チオグアニン(6-TG)は、急性骨髄性白血病(AML)、急性リンパ性白血病 (ALL)、慢性骨髄性白血病(CML)の治療に用いられる医薬品である。長期間の使用は推奨されない。投与法は経口である。 一般的な副作用には、骨髄抑制、肝臓障害、口の炎症があげられる。チオグアニンを服用しているときは、肝臓酵素の検査を毎週することが勧められる。遺伝的なの欠損がある人への投与は副作用のリスクが高い。チオグアニンを服用しているときは、男性と女性の両方ともに妊娠を避けることが推奨される。 チオグアニンは代謝拮抗薬に属する医薬品である。作用機序はグアニンのであり、DNAとRNAを阻害することにより効果がある。 チオグアニンは1949年から1951年に開発された。世界保健機関の必須医薬品リストに掲載されており、医療制度に必要である最も安全で効果的な医薬品である。2014年時点の開発途上国での卸売価格は40錠あたり約7.07米ドルである。英国の国民保健サービスにかかる費用は40錠あたり約4.14ポンドである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ゲニステイン(英:Genistein)は、良く知られているイソフラボンの一つである。ゲニステインやダイゼインのようなイソフラボンは、一次食材であるルピナス属、ソラマメ、クズやen:psoralea や薬草であるen:Flemingia vestita やコーヒーから見つかっている。抗酸化物質や駆虫薬の役割に加えて多くのイソフラボンは、ホルモンであるエストロゲンよって起こる生理作用を及ぼす動物とヒトのエストロゲン受容体に作用することを示してきている。イソフラボンは、非ホルモン作用も起こす。ゲニステインは、1899年にen:Genista tinctoriaから初めて抽出され、化合物の名前は属 (分類学)の名前に由来している。ゲニステインがprunetolと一致していることが発見された際に、ゲニステインの化合物の核が1926年に合成された。ゲニステインが化学的に合成できたのは1928年である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    マンニトール (mannitol) は糖アルコールの一種である。 ヘキソースに分類され、マンノースの還元体に相当する。マンニット (mannite) とも呼ばれる。光学活性物質であり、天然に多く存在するエナンチオマーは D-マンニトールである。ソルビトールの異性体である。 ヨーロッパから中近東にかけて自生するモクセイ科の(Manna Ash、Fraxinus ornus)の甘い樹液から発見・命名された。マンナトネリコの名はマナにちなむ。 浸透圧調製剤・利尿剤であり、弱い腎臓血管拡張剤でもある。 水溶液中ではプロトンを放出する性質を持つため、水溶液は酸性になる。このため、炭酸ナトリウムなど pH 調整剤を併用することが珍しくない。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アセト酢酸(アセトさくさん、acetoacetic acid)は、カルボン酸、ケト酸。別名は、3-オキソブタン酸。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エルゴカルシフェロール(Ergocalciferol)は、ビタミンDの成分の一つ。ビタミンD2とも呼ばれる。組織名は(3β,5Z,7E,22E)-9,10-セコエルゴスタ-5,7,10(19),22-テトラエン-3-オール。から生合成されるが、これはエルゴステロールが紫外線によって活性化されたときに起こる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    フォリン酸(フォリンさん、英: folinic acid、国際一般名: folinic acid)は、ふつうカルシウム塩またはナトリウム塩として、メトトレキサートを含む癌化学療法の際に投与される。また、フォリン酸は阻害薬としてのフルオロウラシル(5-FU)の作用を増強する効果もある。 生物学的に活性があるのはL体のみであり、レボフォリン酸という場合には全ての分子がL体であるものを指す。 フォリン酸は1948年にシトロボラム因子として発見され、現在でもその名称で呼ばれることがある。フォリン酸(folinic acid)は、英語圏では時に葉酸(folic acid)と混同されることがある。フォリン酸(N5-Formyl-THF=)は、体内で容易に代謝されて葉酸の活性型であるN5,N10メチレンテトラヒドロ葉酸となる。 フォリン酸は、世界保健機構が定めた必須医薬品リストであるWHO必須医薬品モデル・リストにも含まれている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    グリオキサール (glyoxal) は、有機化合物の中で最も簡単なジアルデヒド。別名 シュウ酸アルデヒド(蓚酸アルデヒド)、エタンジアール。分子式 C2H2O2、構造式 OHC−CHO。分子量 58.04。CAS登録番号は [107-22-2]。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    第VII因子(だい7いんし、英: factor VII)は、血液凝固カスケードに関与するタンパク質の1つである。以前はプロコンバーチンまたはプロコンベルチン(proconvertin)という名称でも知られていた。第VII因子は酵素前駆体として産生され、プロテアーゼによって活性化されて活性型第VII因子(第VIIa因子)となる。セリンプロテアーゼに分類される酵素である。(エプタコグアルファ(活性型)(eptacog alfa [activated])、商標名ノボセブン(NovoSeven))は、血友病患者の出血性病態に対する治療として承認されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    亜リン酸(あリンさん、Phosphorous acid)は、化学式がH3PO3の無機化合物である。リンのオキソ酸の一つで、他にはリン酸とがある。還元されたリン化合物のみ語尾が"ous"となっている。酸無水物の加水分解によって合成される。 これはリン酸と五酸化二リンとの関係に似ている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    バリエナミン(Valienamine)は、アカルボースやバリダマイシン等の擬オリゴ糖の構造として見られるC-7である。アクチノプラネス属で見られる。 細菌によるバリダマイシンの分解の中間体でもある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アスコクロリン(ascochlorin)はボタンタケ目に属する一部の糸状菌(アクレモニウムなど)が生産する抗生物質である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    マクロファージコロニー刺激因子(マクロファージコロニーしげきいんし、macrophage colony-stimulating factor;M-CSF)またはコロニー刺激因子1(colony stimulating factor 1;CSF1)は、造血幹細胞をマクロファージやその他の関連細胞に分化させる分泌型サイトカインである。また、真核細胞は、細胞間のウイルス感染に対抗するためにM-CSFを産生する。M-CSFは、実験的に報告されている3つのの内の1つである。M-CSFは、に結合する。また、M-CSFは胎盤の形成にも関与している可能性がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ミルリノン(Milrinone)は、心不全の治療に用いられる医薬品で、ミルリーラの商標名で知られる。後発医薬品も販売されている。で、心臓収縮を増やし、を減らす。また、血管拡張薬として心臓の圧力増加(後負荷)を軽減し、ポンプ作用を改善する。ミルリノンは心臓疾患を持つ患者に長年用いられてきたが、臨床使用に対して議論を呼ぶ副作用が存在する可能性が研究からは示唆されている。 全体として、ミルリノンは環状アデノシン一リン酸(cAMP)の分解を減少させ、収縮性や心拍数に寄与する多くの構成要素のリン酸化レベルを増加させることによって心臓の心室機能を助ける。心臓手術後のミルリノンの使用は、術後の心房性不整脈のリスクが増大する可能性があるため、その是非が議論されている。短期的には、ミルリノンは心不全を抱える患者に良い影響を及ぼし、心臓手術後の心機能の維持に効果的な治療法であると考えられているが、長期的な生存に関して効果があるとの証拠はない。心機能障害が認められる重症患者に対しては、使用を勧める質の高い証拠は限られている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エムトリシタビン(英: Emtricitabine)は、一般にFTCと呼ばれ、IUPAC名 2', 3'-ジデオキシ-5-フルオロ-3'-チアシチジン、商品名エムトリバ(Emtriva、旧称 Coviracil)で、HIV感染予防と治療のため成人と小児に用いられる、(NRTI)。 エムトリシタビンは、テノホビル ジソプロキシルフマル酸塩(ビリアード、Viread) との合剤のツルバダ(Truvada)、テノホビル アラフェナミドと(ベムリディ、Vemlidy)との合剤のデシコビ(Descovy)としても販売されている。 エムトリシタビン、テノフォビル、 エファビレンツ(が販売するサスティバ、Sustiva)の3剤の合剤は、2006年7月12日に米国食品医薬品局 (FDA)で承認され、商品名はAtripla。 エムトリシタビンは、クワッドピル(Quad pill 、商品名 スタリビルド(Stribild)、ゲンボイヤ(Genvoya))の4成分のうちの1つ。 エムトリシタビンは、WHO必須医薬品モデル・リストの必須医薬品の1つで、つまり基本的な健康システムに必要な最も重要な医薬品のリストに掲載されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    C-ペプチド(英: C-peptide, connecting peptide)は、分子内でインスリンのA鎖とB鎖を連結している31アミノ酸のポリペプチドである。血清中のC-ペプチドの測定は、糖尿病や低血糖症の診断の際に、類似した臨床像を有する他の疾患との鑑別に利用される場合がある。 インスリン合成経路では、まず膵臓のβ細胞でA鎖、Cペプチド、B鎖、シグナルペプチドを含むが小胞体へ移行する。シグナルペプチドはによってN末端から除去され、プロインスリンが形成される。ゴルジ体でプロインスリンが小胞(β顆粒)へ詰め込まれた後にCペプチドは除去され、ジスルフィド結合によって連結されたA鎖とB鎖からなるインスリン分子が形成される。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    チアマゾール(英: Thiamazole)は、抗甲状腺薬の一種である。メチマゾール(英: Methimazole)とも呼ばれる。プロピルチオウラシルと同様、甲状腺ホルモンを抑制する作用を持つ。チオアミドに属する。日本ではメルカゾールの商品名で発売されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    イニパリブ(Iniparib)は、かつてトリプルネガティブ乳癌等の癌の治療薬の候補であった化合物である。 当初、共有結合によるPARP1の不可逆的阻害薬として作用すると考えられていたが、PARPに対する作用は後に否定された。 一部の乳癌を対象とした臨床試験が行われたが、第III相臨床試験が不本意な結果となったため開発が中止された。開発コード:BSI 201。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    γ-アミノ酪酸(ガンマ-アミノらくさん、gamma-Aminobutyric acid )または4-アミノ酪酸(IUPAC名 4-aminobutanoic acid)は、アミノ酸のひとつで、主に抑制性の神経伝達物質として機能している物質である。 アミノ酪酸にはアミノ基のつく位置によりα-、β-、γ-の3種類の構造異性体が存在するが、γ-アミノ酪酸は、そのうちのひとつである。英語名の γ(gamma)-aminobutyric acid の頭文字をとった略称 GABA(ギャバ)が一般的に広く用いられている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ルボキシスタウリン (ruboxistaurin) は、糖尿病性周辺網膜症に対する治療薬として開発中の化合物である。商品名はArxxant(アークサント)となることが提案されている。イーライリリー・アンド・カンパニーによって現在開発されている。開発コードのLY333531としても知られている。 2006年2月、リリーはルボキシスタウリンの新薬申請を提出し、2006年8月18日にアメリカ食品医薬品局から認可のレターを受け取ったが、完了に5年を要する追加の臨床試験を求められた。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ゲムフィブロジル(Gemfibrozil)は、ロピド(Lopid)などの商品名で販売されている、異常な血中脂質レベルの治療に用いられる医薬品である。一般的にゲムフィブロジルよりスタチンが優先的に使用される。食事の改善と運動との併用が勧められる。心臓病のリスクを変えるかどうかは明確ではない。投与法は経口である。 一般的な副作用には、頭痛、めまい、疲労感、腸の不調などがあげられる。重度の副作用には、血管浮腫、胆石、肝臓障害、筋肉の破壊などがあげられる。妊娠中と授乳中の人への投与の安全性は不明確である。 ゲムフィブロジルはフィブラート系薬剤に属する医薬品であり、その作用機序は脂肪細胞の脂質の分解を減少させることによって効果がある。 ゲムフィブロジルは1968年に特許認可され、1982年に医薬品として用いられるようになった。後発医薬品として入手可能である。日本でも開発されていたが、2002年に承認申請が取り下げられた。2019年の英国のNHSにかかった1か月分の費用は約30ポンドである。米国での1か月分の卸値は約6米ドルである。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    β-セクレターゼ1 (beta-secretase 1, BACE1) は、beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1、beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1、membrane-associated aspartic protease 2、memapsin-2、aspartyl protease 2、ASP2 といった名称でも知られる酵素で、ヒトではBACE1遺伝子にコードされている。 BACE1は、末梢神経細胞におけるミエリン鞘の形成に重要なアスパラギン酸プロテアーゼある。膜貫通タンパク質で、細胞外ドメインの活性部位には2つのアスパラギン酸残基が含まれる。二量体として機能する可能性がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    レイン(Rhein)は、に分類される有機化合物の1種である。 この化合物が下剤としての作用を示すことは古くから知られていた。この他、2008年になって黄色ブドウ球菌に対して抗菌作用も持っていたことが明らかとなった。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    亜酸化窒素(あさんかちっそ、英語: nitrous oxide)とは、窒素酸化物の1種である。組成式はN2Oで表され、IUPAC勧告に従った命名法では、酸化二窒素(さんかにちっそ、英語: dinitrogen oxide)と呼び、一酸化二窒素(いっさんかにちっそ、英語: dinitrogen monoxide)も使用される。 ヒトが吸入すると、陶酔させる作用があることから、笑気ガス(しょうきガス。英語: laughing gas)とも言い、笑気と略されることもある。また麻酔作用もあるため、全身麻酔で医療用途で用いており、世界保健機関においては必須医薬品の一覧にも載せられている。近年は他に優れた麻酔薬が登場したことなどから、少なくとも日本においては、医療用途は減少の一途を辿っている この他にも、工業用途では燃料の発火促進のために使われる。また調理用途では、食材をムース状に加工するエスプーマと呼ばれる調理法に使用される。 しかし、陶酔感を得るために亜酸化窒素を乱用する者が後を絶たないことから、日本では、2016年(平成28年)2月18日に医薬品医療機器法に基づき「一酸化二窒素(別名:亜酸化窒素)」が指定薬物に指定された。そして、日本では同月28日から、医療などの目的以外に亜酸化窒素を製造・販売・所持・使用することが禁止されるに至った。 なお、亜酸化窒素には、地球の大気に放出されると、紫外線によって分解されて一酸化窒素を生成し、オゾン層を破壊するという作用がある。したがって、亜酸化窒素の使用は、地球のオゾンホール拡大という環境問題も抱えている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    プロトカテク酸(プロトカテクさん、protocatechuic acid)は、ポリフェノール抗酸化剤の一つ。in vitroまたはin vivoにおいて、通常の細胞および癌細胞との混合効果を有する。ヒト白血病細胞および、ヒトの口腔内から取られる悪性HSG1のアポトーシスを誘導することが報告されているが、TPA-誘導型マウス皮膚腫瘍との混合効果を持つことが分かっている。プロトカテク酸の量と塗布する時間により、腫瘍の成長を減退もしくは増進させることができる。また、神経幹細胞を増殖させ、そのアポトーシスを阻害することが報告されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    エラグ酸(エラグさん、英: ellagic acid)は、野菜や果物を含む植物で見つかっている天然フェノール系の抗酸化物質である。エラグ酸が抗癌性と抗酸化性を有しているのではないかとの観点から研究が行われてきた。また美白作用の研究がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    セレン化水素(セレンかすいそ、英: hydrogen selenide)は、化学式が H2Se で表されるセレンと水素の化合物で、カルコゲンの水素化合物(カルコゲン化水素)の一つ。セレンの酸化数は-2。爆発範囲は8.84 - 62.4 vol%。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    コレステロール(英: cholesterol)は、ステロイドの中で、ステロールと呼ばれているサブグループに属する有機化合物の一種である。トリテルペノイドの一つでもある。1784年に胆石からコレステロールが初めて単離された。室温で単離された場合は白色ないしは微黄色の固体である。生体内ではスクアレンからプロトステロール(ラノステロールなど)を経て生合成される。 コレステロールは動物細胞にとっては生体膜の必須構成物質であり、さらに細胞内のさまざまなプロセスに関わる主要生体分子の一つである。一方、精製物は化粧品・医薬品・液晶の原材料など工業原料として広く利用されている。コレステロールを含めてステロールは脂質の主要カテゴリの一つを構成する(ステロール脂質)。 いわゆる「善玉/悪玉コレステロール」と呼ばれる物質は、血管中を流れているリポタンパク粒子をあらかじめ高密度リポタンパク質(HDL)と低密度リポタンパク質(LDL)に超遠心分離法または化学的な分別剤を使って分離し、各粒子中のコレステロールを、生化学的分析法で測定したもので、HDL中のコレステロールを善玉、LDL中のコレステロ-ルを悪玉と呼称し、決してコレステロール自体に差があるというものではない。最近はコレステロールそのものの違いより、リポタンパク質の「質」の違いにより動脈硬化性疾患の治療や予防が行われるようになってきた。 詳細は「脂質異常症」を参照

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    カルボシステイン(carbocisteine、carbocysteine)は、去痰薬に用いられる医薬品のひとつ。喀痰の(ねんちょうど)を下げ、その排出を容易にする。慢性閉塞性肺疾患 (COPD)、気管支拡張症、気管支炎などの呼吸器疾患の症状を軽快させる。気管支の分泌を妨ぐ効果がある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ハプトグロビン(英: haptoglobin、略称: Hp)は、ヒトではHP遺伝子によってコードされるタンパク質である。血漿中でハプトグロビンは赤血球から放出された遊離ヘモグロビンに高い親和性で結合し、その有害な酸化活性を阻害する。一方類似した機能を持つヘモペキシンは遊離ヘムに対して結合する。ハプトグロビン-ヘモグロビン複合体はその後、細網内皮系(主に脾臓)によって除去される。 臨床現場では、ハプトグロビンアッセイは血管内溶血性貧血のスクリーニングとモニタリングに利用される。では、遊離ヘモグロビンが血液循環へ放出され、そこにハプトグロビンが結合する。これによってはハプトグロビン値の低下が引き起こされる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    サリチルアミド(英: Salicylamide)は非ステロイド性抗炎症薬(NSAIDs)の一種。CAS登録番号は65-45-2。2-ヒドロキシベンズアミドとも呼ばれる。神経痛、筋肉痛、関節リウマチの痛みや炎症を緩和する効能がある。また、本薬はより一般的な NSAIDs であるエテンザミドの活性代謝物でもある(ただし、同薬のプロドラッグというわけではない)。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    ステアリン(Stearin)またはトリステアリン(Tristearin)、グリセリルトリステアラート(Glyceryl tristearate、トリステアリン酸グリセリル)は、3つのステアリン酸ユニットからなるトリグリセリドである。ほとんどのトリグリセリドは、少なくとも2つ以上、通常は3つの異なる脂肪酸に由来する。他のトリグリセリドと同様に、ステアリンは3つの多形で結晶化する。ステアリンの場合、融点はそれぞれ54℃(α型)、65℃、72.5℃(β型)である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies. Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming. Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, and has a variety of applications from rocketry to making whipped cream. It is used as a recreational drug for its potential to induce a brief "high"; most recreational users are unaware of its neurotoxicity and potential to cause neurological damage.

    アンドロステンジオン(Androstenedione)は、副腎、性腺で生産される19炭素のステロイドホルモンで、テストステロン、エストロン、エストラジオールのそれぞれの生合成経路の中間生成物である。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Nitrous_oxide)

    Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, and has a slightly sweet scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects. Its colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide's atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually. It is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs. Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows th