Carbon dioxide

  • Carbon Dioxide
  • A gaseous compound of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms, CO2. It is colorless, odorless, incombustible, and is soluble in water. Its dissolution in seawater is important to understanding the global carbon cycle.  
Abstract from DBPedia
    Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless and odorless gas vital to life on Earth. This naturally occurring chemical compound is composed of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide exists in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm) by volume. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, in ice caps and glaciers and also in seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary source of carbon in life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian was regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. As part of the carbon cycle, plants, algae, and cyanobacteria use light energy to photosynthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen produced as a waste product. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize carbohydrate and lipids to produce energy by respiration. It is returned to water via the gills of fish and to the air via the lungs of air-breathing land animals, including humans. Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and winemaking. It is produced by combustion of wood, carbohydrates and fossil fuels such as coal, peat, petroleum and natural gas. It is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, as a chemical feedstock and in liquid form as a solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. It is added to drinking water and carbonated beverages including beer and sparkling wine to add effervescence. The frozen solid form of CO2, known as "dry ice" is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. Carbon dioxide is a significant greenhouse gas. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions - including the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels and land use changes (primarily deforestation) - have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. It is also a major cause of ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.

    二酸化炭素(にさんかたんそ、英: carbon dioxide)は、化学式が CO2 と表される無機化合物である。化学式から「シーオーツー」と呼ばれる事も多い。 地球上で最も代表的な炭素の酸化物であり、炭素単体や有機化合物の燃焼によって容易に生じる。気体は炭酸ガス、固体はドライアイス、液体は液体二酸化炭素、水溶液は炭酸・炭酸水と呼ばれる。 多方面の産業で幅広く使われる(後述)。日本では高圧ガス保安法容器保安規則第十条により、二酸化炭素(液化炭酸ガス)の容器(ボンベ)の色は緑色と定められている。温室効果ガスの排出量を示すための換算指標でもあり、メタンや亜酸化窒素、フロンガスなどが変換される。日本では2014年度で13.6億トンが総排出量として算出された。


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