Soils

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  • Soils
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  • The range of dynamic natural bodies composed of mineral and organic materials and living forms in which plants grow. 
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Abstract from DBPedia
    Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions: * as a medium for plant growth * as a means of water storage, supply and purification * as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere * as a habitat for organisms All of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil and its properties. The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense "fundamental stone". Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soil scientists can envisage soils as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases. Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and the soil's parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem. Most soils have a dry bulk density (density of soil taking into account voids when dry) between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3. Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic, although fossilized soils are preserved from as far back as the Archean. Soil science has two basic branches of study: edaphology and pedology. Edaphology studies the influence of soils on living things. Pedology focuses on the formation, description (morphology), and classification of soils in their natural environment. In engineering terms, soil is included in the broader concept of regolith, which also includes other loose material that lies above the bedrock, as can be found on the Moon and on other celestial objects as well. Soil is also commonly referred to as earth or dirt; some scientific definitions distinguish dirt from soil by restricting the former term specifically to displaced soil.

    土壌(どじょう)とは、地球上の陸地の表面を覆っている鉱物、有機物、気体、液体、生物の混合物である。一般には土(つち)とも呼ばれる。海底など水域の底にも土壌は広く存在する。 地球の土壌は土壌圏 (en)を構成し、以下の4つの重要な機能を持って生命を支えている。 * 植物の生育媒体。 * 水を蓄え、供給し、浄化する。 * 地球の大気の組成を変える。 * (植物以外を含む)生物の住みかとなる。 これら全ての機能は、土壌を変化させる働きを持っている。 土壌圏は岩石圏、水圏、大気圏、生物圏と接触する。土壌は鉱物と有機物から成る固体の部分と、気体(土壌空気)と水(土壌溶液)を蓄える間隙(空隙)とで構成される。すなわち、土壌は固相、液相、気相の三相システムである。 土壌が生成されるためには母材(土壌の元となる材料)、気候、地形、生物、時間という5つの因子がある。土壌は侵食による風化など、多くの物理的、化学的、生物的過程によって常に変化している。土壌はとても複雑で強い内部相互作用を持つ生態系である。 多くの土壌の仮比重(水がない状態での間隙を含んだ土壌の密度、乾燥密度とも言う)は 1.1 から 1.6 g/cm3 であり、土粒子そのものの密度は 2.6 から 2.7 g/cm3 とずっと大きい。地球上には更新世よりも古い土壌はほとんどなく、新生代よりも古い土壌は全くない。ただし、太古代の土壌が化石土壌として残っていることがある。 土壌学はエダフォロジー (edaphology) とペドロジー (pedology) に分かれる。エダフォロジーは土壌が生物に与える影響を研究する。ペドロジーは自然環境における土壌の形成、状態の記述、分類をする。工学的には土壌はレゴリスに含まれる。レゴリスには母岩の上の土壌以外の物質も含まれ、地球以外の天体にも存在する。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Soil)

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