• Base64
  • A data encoding scheme whereby binary-encoded data is converted to printable ASCII characters. It is defined as a MIME content transfer encoding for use in Internet e-mail. The only characters used are the upper- and lower-case Roman alphabet characters (A-Z, a-z), the numerals (0-9), and the "+" and "/" symbols, with the "=" symbol as a special suffix (padding) code.
Abstract from DBPedia
    In programming, Base64 is a group of binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data (more specifically, a sequence of 8-bit bytes) in an ASCII string format by translating the data into a radix-64 representation. The term Base64 originates from a specific MIME content transfer encoding. Each non-final Base64 digit represents exactly 6 bits of data. Three bytes (i.e., a total of 24 bits) can therefore be represented by four 6-bit Base64 digits. Common to all binary-to-text encoding schemes, Base64 is designed to carry data stored in binary formats across channels that only reliably support text content. Base64 is particularly prevalent on the World Wide Web where one of its uses is the ability to embed image files or other binary assets inside textual assets such as HTML and CSS files. Base64 is also widely used for sending e-mail attachments. This is required because SMTP—in its original form—was designed to transport 7-bit ASCII characters only. This encoding causes an overhead of 33–36% (33% by the encoding itself; up to 3% more by the inserted line breaks).

    Base64は、データを64種類の印字可能な英数字のみを用いて、それ以外の文字を扱うことの出来ない通信環境にてマルチバイト文字やバイナリデータを扱うためのエンコード方式である。MIMEによって規定されていて、7ビットのデータしか扱うことの出来ない電子メールにて広く利用されている。具体的には、A–Z, a–z, 0–9 までの62文字と、記号2つ (+, /)、さらにパディング(余った部分を詰める)のための記号として = が用いられる。この変換によって、データ量は4/3(約133%)になる。また、MIMEの基準では76文字ごとに改行コードが入るため、この分の2バイトを計算に入れるとデータ量は約137%となる。