Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E.
C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L.,
Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G.
and Smith, S. R., 2017: ICOADS Release 3.0: a major update to the
historical marine climate record. Int. J. Climatol., 37, 2211-2232
(DOI: 10.1002/joc.4775), URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4775.
The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS)
is a global ocean marine meteorological and surface ocean dataset.
It is formed by merging many national and international data sources
that contain measurements and visual observations from ships
(merchant, navy, research), moored and drifting buoys, coastal
stations, and other marine platforms. The coverage is global and
sampling density varies depending on date and geographic position
relative to shipping routes and ocean observing systems. The monthly
summary time series are available at 2-degree (since 1800) and
1-degree (since 1960) spatial resolutions. Observations (22 observed
and computed parameters) taken in each month for a give spatial
latitude by longitude box are statistically summarized (e.g. mean,
median, number of observations, etc) and NOT interpolated or
analyzed to fill data voids.