Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E.
C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L.,
Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G.
and Smith, S. R., 2017: ICOADS Release 3.0: a major update to the
historical marine climate record. Int. J. Climatol., 37, 2211-2232
(DOI: 10.1002/joc.4775), URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4775.
The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS)
is a global ocean marine meteorological and surface ocean dataset.
It is formed by merging many national and international data sources
that contain measurements and visual observations from ships
(merchant, navy, research), moored and drifting buoys, coastal
stations, and other marine and near-surface ocean platforms. Each
marine report contains individual observations of meteorological and
oceanographic variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures,
wind, pressure, humidity, and cloudiness. The coverage is global and
sampling density varies depending on date and geographic position
relative to shipping routes and ocean observing systems.
The latest Release 3.0 (R3.0) of ICOADS covers 1662-2014, and is
coupled with improved "preliminary" monthly data and product
extensions past 2014. R3.0 includes changes designed to enable more
effective exchange of information describing data quality between
ICOADS, reanalysis centers, data set developers, scientists and the
public. These user-driven innovations include the assignment of a
unique identifier (UID) to each marine report, to enable tracing of
observations, linking with reports and improved data sharing. Other
revisions and extensions of the International Maritime
Meteorological Archive (IMMA) common data format incorporate new
near-surface oceanographic data elements and cloud parameters. Many
new input data and metadata sources have been assembled, and updates
and improvements to existing data sources, or removal of erroneous