Woodruff, S.D., S.J. Worley, S.J. Lubker, Z. Ji, J.E. Freeman, D.I.
Berry, P. Brohan, E.C. Kent, R.W. Reynolds, S.R. Smith, C.
Wilkinson, 2011: ICOADS Release 2.5: extensions and enhancements to
the surface marine meteorological archive. International Journal of
Climatology, 31(7), 951-967 (DOI: 10.1002/joc.2103), URL:
Kent, E. C., S. D. Woodruff and D. I. Berry, 2007: WMO Publication
No. 47 metadata and an assessment of observation heights in ICOADS.
J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24(2), 214-234, URL:
Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, S.J. Worley, R.W. Reynolds, and S.J.
Lubker, 2005: Early ship observational data and ICOADS. Climatic
Change, 73, 169-194 (DOI: 10.1007/s10584-005-3456-3).
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(CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 823-842 (DOI: 10.1002/joc.1166), URL:
This dataset is superseded by ICOADS Release 3, Individual
The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS)
is a global ocean marine meteorological and surface ocean dataset.
It is formed by merging many national and international data sources
that contain measurements and visual observations from ships
(merchant, navy, research), moored and drifting buoys, coastal
stations, and other marine platforms. Each report contains
individual observations of meteorological and oceanographic
variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures, wind, pressure,
humidity, and cloudiness. The coverage is global and sampling
density varies depending on date and geographic position relative to
shipping routes and ocean observing systems.
All three U.S. ICOADS partners (NOAA/ESRL, NOAA/NCDC, NCAR) offer
various data access and format options. To review all available
options see the ICOADS website
IMPORTANT: The time period of data available is defined in two segments.
* ICOADS Release 2.5 covers 1662 through 2007
* All data following the Release 2.5 end date is based exclusively on
real-time GTS data with minimal quality control. These data should be
considered preliminary and will be subject to change in new Releases of