Data Publications

International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 2.5, Individual Observations

  • International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 2.5, Individual Observations
  • NCAR_DS540.0
  • Woodruff, S.D., S.J. Worley, S.J. Lubker, Z. Ji, J.E. Freeman, D.I. Berry, P. Brohan, E.C. Kent, R.W. Reynolds, S.R. Smith, C. Wilkinson, 2011: ICOADS Release 2.5: extensions and enhancements to the surface marine meteorological archive. International Journal of Climatology, 31(7), 951-967 (DOI: 10.1002/joc.2103), URL: Kent, E. C., S. D. Woodruff and D. I. Berry, 2007: WMO Publication No. 47 metadata and an assessment of observation heights in ICOADS. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24(2), 214-234, URL: Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, S.J. Worley, R.W. Reynolds, and S.J. Lubker, 2005: Early ship observational data and ICOADS. Climatic Change, 73, 169-194 (DOI: 10.1007/s10584-005-3456-3). Worley, S.J., S.D. Woodruff, R.W. Reynolds, S.J. Lubker, and N. Lott, 2005: ICOADS Release 2.1 data and products. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 823-842 (DOI: 10.1002/joc.1166), URL:
  • This dataset is superseded by ICOADS Release 3, Individual Observations []. The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a global ocean marine meteorological and surface ocean dataset. It is formed by merging many national and international data sources that contain measurements and visual observations from ships (merchant, navy, research), moored and drifting buoys, coastal stations, and other marine platforms. Each report contains individual observations of meteorological and oceanographic variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures, wind, pressure, humidity, and cloudiness. The coverage is global and sampling density varies depending on date and geographic position relative to shipping routes and ocean observing systems. All three U.S. ICOADS partners (NOAA/ESRL, NOAA/NCDC, NCAR) offer various data access and format options. To review all available options see the ICOADS website []. IMPORTANT: The time period of data available is defined in two segments. * ICOADS Release 2.5 covers 1662 through 2007 * All data following the Release 2.5 end date is based exclusively on real-time GTS data with minimal quality control. These data should be considered preliminary and will be subject to change in new Releases of ICOADS
GCMD Sciencekeywords describing the dataset. Click on Keyword to find similar datasets