Tokinaga, H., S.-P. Xie, A. Timmermann, S. McGregor, T. Ogata, H.
Kubota, and Y. M. Okumura, 2012: Regional patterns of tropical
Indo-Pacific climate change: Evidence of the Walker Circulation
weakening. J. Climate, 25, 1689-1710 (DOI:
Tokinaga, H., and S.-P. Xie, 2011: Weakening of the equatorial
Atlantic cold tongue over the past six decades. Nature Geoscince, 4,
222-226 (DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1078), URL:
Tokinaga, H., and S.-P. Xie, 2011: Wave and Anemometer-based Sea
Surface Wind (WASWind) for climate change analysis. J. Climate, 24,
267-285 (DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3789.1), URL:
Ship-based measurements of sea surface wind speed displays a
spurious upward trend due to increases in anemometer height. To
correct this bias, we construct a new sea surface wind dataset from
ship observations of wind speed and wind wave height archived in the
International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS). The
Wave and Anemometer-based Sea-surface Wind (WASWind) dataset is
available at monthly resolution on a 4 degrees by 4 degrees.
longitude-latitude grid from 1950 to 2011. It substantially reduces
the upward trend in wind speed through height-correction for
anemometer-measured winds, rejection of spurious Beaufort winds, and
use of estimated winds from wind wave height. The reduced upward
trend is smallest among the existing global datasets of in situ
observations and comparable with those of reanalysis products.
Despite the significant reduction of globally-averaged wind speed
trend, WASWind features rich spatial structures in trend pattern,
making it a valuable dataset for studies of climate changes on
regional scales. Not only does the combination of ship winds and
wind wave height successfully reproduce major modes of
seasonal-to-decadal variability, but its trend patterns are also
physically consistent with sea level pressure (SLP) measurements.
WASWind is in close agreement with wind changes in satellite
measurements by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) for the
recent two decades. The agreement in trend pattern with such
independent observations illustrates the utility of WASWind for
climate trend analysis.