- Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
- Supplementary material for analogue experiments on the interactions of two indenters, and their implications for curved fold-and-thrust-belts
- multi-scale laboratories
- analogue modelling results
- analogue models of geologic processes
- analogue model
- 4D analogue experiments
- Tajik basin
- continental collision
- digital elevation model
- fold-and-thrust belts
- mountain building
- particle image velocimetry
- sandbox model
- two indenter tectonics
This data publication includes animations and figures of eight scaled analogue models that are used to investigate the evolution of a curved mountain belt akin to the Pamir and Hindu Kush orogenic system and adjacent Tadjik basin. Crustal deformation is simulated by means of indentation of two basement blocks into a sedimentary sequence and the formation of a curved fold-and-thrust belt.
The experimental set-up has two adjacent rigid indenters representing the basement blocks moving in parallel with a velocity difference (Figure 1). The slow indenter moves with a relative velocity ranging from 40 to 80% of that of the fast one. A layer of quartz sand in front of the indenters, 1 by 1 meter in size and 1.5 cm thick, represents the sedimentary basin infill. A basal detachment layer is made up of low-friction glass beads or viscous silicone oil representing weak shale or evaporates layers, respectively. The surface evolution by means of topography and strain distribution is derived from 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV). This allows visualizing and analysing the development of the model surface during the complete model run at high spatio-temporal resolution. All details about the model set-up, modelling results and interpretation can be found in Reiter et al. (2011).
The here provided additional material includes time-lapse movies showing the topographic evolution of the eight models. These visualizations are oblique views played back at 60-fold velocity for the “glass beads experiments” (gb40 to gb80) and 3600-fold velocity for the “silicone experiments” (si60, si-gb60).
In addition to the experiment movies we provide a set of figures. The figures include surface views as well as cross-sections through the finite models highlighting the link between topography and internal structure of the simulated curved fold-and-thrust belts. Additionally, attribute maps of distinct morphometric measures (curvature, slope) and deformation parameters (uplift, horizontal translation) for the experiments with glass beads detachments are given. Finally, the movie “Experimenting.avi” shows in time-lapse the whole workflow of setting up, conducting and documenting an experiment, which originally required three days (for experiment si-gb60).
An overview on the parameters used in the experimental series of the movie sequences is given in the explanatory file (Explanations_Reiter-et-al-2016.pdf). A full list of files is given in “list-of-files-Reiter-et-al-2016.pdf”.
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