Wind power

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  • wind power
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  • Energy extracted from wind, traditionally in a windmill, but increasingly by more complicated designes including turbines, usually to produce electricity but also for water pumping. The power available from wind is proportional to the area swept by the rotating place and the cube of the wind velocity, but less than half the available power can be recovered.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity. Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land. The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of nonrenewable power sources. Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electricity, competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants. Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind farms can feed some energy into the grid or provide electricity to isolated off-grid locations. Wind power gives variable power which is very consistent from year to year but which has significant variation over shorter time scales. It is therefore used in conjunction with other electric power sources to give a reliable supply. As the proportion of wind power in a region increases, a need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to supplant conventional production can occur. Power management techniques such as having excess capacity, geographically distributed turbines, dispatchable backing sources, sufficient hydroelectric power, exporting and importing power to neighboring areas, using vehicle-to-grid strategies or reducing demand when wind production is low, can in many cases overcome these problems. In addition, weather forecasting permits the electricity network to be readied for the predictable variations in production that occur. As of 2015, Denmark generates 40% of its electricity from wind, and at least 83 other countries around the world are using wind power to supply their electricity grids. In 2014 global wind power capacity expanded 16% to 369,553 MW. Yearly wind energy production is also growing rapidly and has reached around 4% of worldwide electricity usage, 11.4% in the EU.

    風力発電(ふうりょくはつでん)とは風の力(風力)を利用した発電方式である。風力エネルギーは再生可能エネルギーのひとつとして、自然環境の保全、エネルギーセキュリティの確保可能なエネルギー源として認められ、多くの地に風力発電所や風力発電装置が建設されている。風力エネルギーの利用として、発電には発電風車(風力タービン)が、機械的動力を得るには粉挽き風車のような風車(ウインドミル)が、揚水や灌漑には揚水風車(風力ポンプ)が、さらに船の推進には帆が用いられている。巨大な風力発電所(ウインドファーム)は、送電線に接続されている何百機もの風車で構成されている。最近のEUの調査では、新規に建設された陸上風車は安価な発電源であり、石炭・ガスなどの化石燃料による発電所より安価で、競争力を持っているという。洋上風力は陸上より安定で強力であり視覚障害はないが、建設維持コストは陸上風力より高くなる。小型陸上風力発電所は送電網に連系して送電したり、あるいは連系しないで電気を自己消費される。化石燃料の代替としての風力は、大量で、再生可能で、広域に分布し、クリーンで、稼働時に温暖化ガスを排出せず、少しの土地を使うだけである。2013年において、デンマークでは風力で3分の1以上の電気を賄い、世界では83か国が風力発電で電気が系統に連系されている。風力発電の設備容量は2014年6月に336GWまで急速に拡大し、世界の電気需要の4%が風力発電であり、なお急激に増加している。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wind_power)