- Protected land and coastal areas that are approved under the Man and Biosphere programme (MAB) in conjunction with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Each reserve has to have an ecosystem that is recognized for its diversity and usefulness as a conservation unit. The reserves have at least one core area where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. A transition zone surrounds this and within it scientific research is allowed. Beyond this is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. Biosphere reserves and buffer zones were regarded as examples of a new generation of conservation techniques.