Temperature

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  • temperature
definition
  • A property that determines the direction of heat flow when an object is brought into thermal contact with other objects: heat flows from regions of higher to those of lower temperatures.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold. It is measured by a thermometer, which may work through the bulk behavior of a thermometric material, detection of thermal radiation, or particle kinetic energy. Several scales and units exist for measuring temperature, the most common being Celsius (denoted °C; formerly called centigrade), Fahrenheit (denoted °F), and, especially in science, Kelvin (denoted K). The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of atoms and molecules reaches its minimum – classically, this would be a state of motionlessness, but quantum uncertainty dictates that the particles still possess a finite zero-point energy. In addition to this, a real system or object can never be brought to a temperature of absolute zero by thermodynamic means. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, and −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. The kinetic theory offers a valuable but limited account of the behavior of the materials of macroscopic bodies, especially of fluids. It indicates the as proportional to the average kinetic energy of the random microscopic motions of those of their constituent microscopic particles, such as electrons, atoms, and molecules, that move freely within the material. Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, geology, chemistry, atmospheric sciences, medicine, and biology, as well as most aspects of daily life.

    温度(おんど)とは、温冷の度合いを表す指標である。二つの物体の温度の高低は熱的な接触により熱が移動する方向によって定義される。すなわち温度とは熱が自然に移動していく方向を示す指標であるといえる。標準的には、接触により熱が流出する側の温度が高く、熱が流入する側の温度が低いように定められる。接触させても熱の移動が起こらない場合は二つの物体の温度が等しい。 統計力学によれば、温度とは物質を構成する分子がもつエネルギーの統計値である。熱力学温度の零点(0ケルビン)は絶対零度と呼ばれ、分子の運動が静止する状態に相当する。ただし絶対零度は極限的な状態であり、有限の操作で物質が絶対零度となることはない。また、量子的な不確定性からも分子運動が止まることはない。 温度はそれを構成する粒子の運動であるから、化学反応に直結し、それを元にするあらゆる現象における強い影響力を持つ。生物にはそれぞれ至適温度があり、ごく狭い範囲の温度の元でしか生存できない。なお、日常では単に温度といった場合、往々にして気温のことを指す。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Temperature)

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